Chronicle Aviation > 1890 - 1910


Translated by BabelFish

1910 - 1930 >

France, October 9 1890

Clement Ader exulte! This afternoon, in the park of the castle of Armainsvilliers, the French scientist flew to the orders of a machine of his design, Eole. It is in the greatest secrecy that Ader and its assistants had come to settle in the property of Mrs. Isaac Péreire, the widow of the famous banker. As of August, tests took place, and, today, except for Mrs. Péreire, one of his/her friends and of its family, there was in the enclosure of the castle only Clément Ader and its two foremen, Eloi Vallier and Espinosa. A surface of 200 meters length operation on 25 broad, beaten with the roller and entirely released from any obstacle, had been prepared. In the afternoon, "the plane", thus the engineer calls Eole, is brought on the track. There is no wind, which wishes Ader, bus, apart from the engine controls and of that which makes it possible to move back or advance the wings, Eole does not have rudder. A little before four hours, one starts the engine. It is with vapor, two cylinders and of an exceptional quality. Of a power of 20 CH, the driving unit, boiler and condenser included/understood, weighs less than 3 kg per horse, never considering! To be certain to take off, Ader reduced to the maximum Eole, by removing two of the tanks. The engine makes turn a horizontal tree which actuates the propeller whose four blades are in split bamboo. Astonishing prowess, the wings are articulated and folding. Learnedly studied, their profile in hollow distinguish them from the airplanes of the time. At four hours four minutes, Ader makes roll Eole on the improvised track, then, having increased the speed of the engine, it is smelled suddenly raised in the air. At the same time, the assistants of Ader placed halfway on the track, see the wheels being detached from the ground and Eole to traverse around fifty of meters by shaving the track to 20 cm before improving the ground. It is 16h06. Ader leaves the machine obviously moved. Without losing its cold blood, and before writing an official report, it orders with all to maintain the secrecy and asks its foremen to mark the exact place where they saw the wheels Eole to leave it ground.

France, October 12 1890

Clement Ader written to his friend Felix Nadar "that it carried out its first flight with its apparatus of final studies, Eole".

Cairo, November 20 1890

Louis Mouillard answers the American scientist of French extraction Octave Chanute. It authorizes it to present its theories "at these bold people of the United States".

Grosskreuz, 1891

Lilienthal gives wings to the Man: Otto Lilienthal, its Gustave brother and their associate Hugo Eulitz build a sailplane which they try out close to Berlin: they manage to plane in the air on more than 50 m.

the United States, 1891

the astronomer Samuel Pierpont Langley, who directs Smithsonian Institution, publishes in Washington a work entitled Experiments in Aerodynamics, a study on the reactions of the air on the plans moving.

France, September 1891

Ader obtained the authorization of the army to use the ground of Satory for its tests. Eole undergoes there a damage at the time of its second flight.

the United States, October 1891

In Railroad and Engineering Newspaper of Chicago, Octave Chanute starts to publish a series of articles on aeronautics.

France, February 3 1892

Clement Ader signs with the Minister for the War, Charles de Freycinet, a convention under the terms of which it is committed building an aircraft able to fly to several hundred meters height. To him a subsidy of 200 000 Franks is granted.

the United States, August 2 1892

Chanute Octave receives from Villeneuve, the president of the French Company of aerial navigation, an unfavourable report on the experiments of Ader.

the United States, September 24 1892

For the account of Louis Mouillard, Octave Chanute deposits an patent application of sailplane-sailing ship.

the United States, May 1 1893

A the occasion of the World Fair of Chicago, Chanute chairs the international conference of air Locomotion.

the United States, Be 1893

Wright sell bicycles. They repair, manufacture and sell bicycles, without losing sight of the fact the dream which agitates them since childhood: to build one day an airplane and to fly.

the United States, 1894

Chanute Octave remakes the history. The time of a book, the engineer of the railroads Octave Chanute was made historian and theorist of aviation.

Paris, July 24 1894

the Minister for the War grant a subsidy of 250 000 F to build a Plane III which will be twin-engine.

Great Britain, July 31 1894

In its property of Baldwyn' S Park in Kent, to sir Hiram Maxim carried out captive tests on a machine heavier than the air, propelled to the vapor. They is true giants of the airs which the inventor of the machine-gun built. Of a scale of 31 m, the machine of Hiram Maxim, comprises an octagonal surface, prolonged by side wings. A boiler supplies two compound engines of 180 CH which actuate two large propellers 5,45 meters in diameter. The apparatus weighs on the whole nearly 3500 kg. After several unfruitful attempts, the airplane, installed on double a 550 m length shoed track, the first to guide it, the second to prevent it from taking off, carried out a short jump of 60 cm before breaking in its rails.

Paris, December 28 1895

Armand Déperdussin become "barker" for projections of the Lumière brothers.

the United States, May 6 1896

a "Aerodrome" above Potomac: one minute and thirty-five seconds above Potomac! The Aerodrome of Samuel Pierpont Langley held his promises, but it is yet only one model with the quarter which has just flown. For the occasion, the secretary of Smithsonian Institution invited Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone which is also impassioned of aviation. The Aerodrome n°5 is a small steel airplane. It is a catapult, installed on one of banks of Potomac, which propelled in the airs the n°5. This one rose until a height of 100 feet.

Berlin, August 10 1896

the sailplane kill Otto Lilienthal.

the United States, September 12 1896

Chanute Octave makes fly of the Americans. "It is necessary to fly and fall. To fly and fall until we can steal without falling." At sixty-four years, the American scientist Octave Chanute feels well too old to take with the letter this maxim of Lilienthal. Also you it has engaged three young people to test its sailplanes. Augustus Herring, William Avery and the Russian Paul Boutousov thus settled with their new employer with Milleur Station in Indiana.

France, June 1897

Victor Tatin and Charles Richet make steal in Carqueiranne an airplane not assembled, mû by the vapor. The machine, which weighs 33kg, makes a flight of 140 m in straight line.

Eynsford, June 19 1897

It is at Otto Lilienthal that Percy Sinclair contracted the virus of the sailplane. This Scot of Glasgow, according to the councils of the German inventor designed an original sailplane: Hawk (falcon). The apparatus has two wheels of bicycle which form landing gear. The take-off is carried out by means of a winch actuated by assistances and sometimes by horses. Today, in Eynsford in Kent, Pilcher thanks to this system gained a sufficient height to carry out a slip of more than 200 m. An exploit which confirms its intuition: the more one gains height, the more the ascending currents carry the sailplane.

Cairo, September 20 1897

Paralysed, Louis Mouillard dies in misery. It leaves with the state notes a last work, the flight without beats.

France, October 14 1897

Ader fails in front of the Mensier General: the test of its new plane III turned to the catastrophe.

France, October 21 1897

the Mensier General writes the official report of the tests of Plane III. No moment, it specifies if the aircraft really flew.

Germany, November 3 1897

the widow of Austrian engineer Schwartz made tried out successfully in Tempelhof an airship out of aluminium, propelled by a Daimler engine of 12 CH.

France, 31 Mars 1898

the army break with Clément Ader.

Paris, September 3 1898

Clement Ader deposit the patent of an automobile engine of a completely new type: it acts of a two cylinder motor out of V.

Paris, September 18 1898

Alberto Santos-Dumont is driven its airship n°1 by an engine with oil with Dion and Bouton of 1,75 CH. It modifies it by adding out of tandem another cylinder.

Paris, October 7 1898

the Aero club of France is created.

the United States, October 11 1898

In Michigan, in Saint Joseph, Augustus Hering, in the presence of Chanute Octave, cannot make take off a biplane to be driven by a compressed-air engine of 3 CH.

Dayton, June 2 1899

Wilbur Wright receives from Smithsonian Institution Progress in Flying Machines of Chanute and, of the extracts of the Empire of the air of Louis Mouillard.

Dayton, July 27 1899

the Wright brothers completed a biplane sailplane which they will test by using it like a kite.

Stanford Hall, October 2 1899

the English pioneer Percy Pilcher dies following a fall of 9 m made day before yesterday in sailplane.

Germany, 6 Mars 1900

Death of Gottlieb Daimler, the light originator di driving with petroleum gas.

Paris, April 14 1900

Opening of the World Fair. Plane III of Clement Ader is exposed there.

Paris, May 1900

having discovered the Plane of Ader to the Exposure, Gabriel Voisin gives up its studies of architecture. It draws a project of flying machine, inspired of the cellular kites of Hargrave.

the United States, May 17 1900

Chanute Octave advises in Wilbur Wright to get the works of Louis Mouillard, in response to a request for documentation.

Lyon, June 29 1900

Andree Boyer de Fonscolombe puts at the world Antoine, wire of the Viscount Jean de Saint-Exupéry.

Germany, July 2 1900

the first rigid airship designed by Ferdinand von zeppelin took the air today. On board, with the inventor, were the baron von Bassus and the engineer of the firm, Ludwig Dürr. After 18 minutes of rise to the top of the Lake of Constancy, an incident of engine and a damage with the rudder obliged the airship to be posed prudently on water.

the United States, September 6 1900

Wilbur Wright leaves Dayton for Kitty Hawk, in North Carolina. The year spent, the two brothers had asked for a help the American National office of meteorology in order to choose a site for their tests.

Paris, September 19 1900

At the time of a reception of the international Congress of aeronautics of the Aero club, Henry Deutsch of Meurthe declares: "Let us hope... that the air cars will manage to exceed of speed all the terrestrial cars."

Paris, September 22 1900

A edge of its airship n°4, Santos-Dumont flies over the banquet of the 22000 mayors of France which is held with Tileries.

Russia, September 30 1900

the count of Vaulx lands in balloon in Brest Konyaski. Coming from France, it achieved only this voyage.

Korostychev, October 9 1900

From Paris in Kiev in balloon: left Paris on board balloon the Centaur, the count of Vaulx and his companion of navigation, the count de Castillon de Saint-Victor, were posed today in Russia, in Korostychev, not far from Kiev. The tour lasted 35. 45 and one new record was established: the aeronauts traversed 1925 km without touching ground.

North Carolina, October 31 1900

Wilbur and Orville Wright advance while groping but they seem quite close to the success. They built a biplane sailplane of 5 m scale and 15 m² of airfoil, equipped with before elevator. Installed on the dunes of the beaches of Kitty Hawk, a place where the winds are constant, they accomplished flights this month. Sometimes, they remained in the air nearly 2 minutes. They also used their sailplane as kite. The system of control of the machine is astute: a set of cables makes it possible to raise the end of a wing while lowering the other.

Nice, November 1900

Ferdinand Ferber is affected with the command of the 17eme alpine battery. As of its arrival, it makes build a 5 m height platform, intended for the experimentation of its sailplanes.

Chicago, September 18 1901

Wilbur Wright exposes its tests of glidings in front of the Western Company of the engineers, with photographs taken at the time of the second stay with Kitty Hawk. It considers the possibility of the motorized flight.

the United States, January 1902

the spark-ignition engine ordered by Samuel Langley for his Aerodrome is ready. The engine delivered by Stephen Balzer was modified by Charles Manly. It is tested successfully during 10 hours with the test bench. With 5 star cylinders cooled by water, it weighs only 94 kg for 52 CH.

North Carolina, October 28 1902

the Wright brothers learned how to overcome the winds! After a third season on the sorry beaches of Kitty Hawk, they set out again this morning, sure that they had become Masters in art to control their sailplanes of wood, cables and fabric. They had become familiar of the inhabitants, in particular of the postmaster, daN Tate, which was to them of an invaluable help at the time of the delicate launching of the sailplanes in winds of 43 km/h. However, they knew to remain quiet men, even austere, devoted to their father, preacher, never not taking the air Sunday, and bearing, even in flight, hard collar and tie. Courage and the determination are the keys of their success. But it is based at the beginning over months of work scientific in their workshop of Dayton, in Ohio, where they built an experimental blower. Attaching model to a small balance placed in a flow of air, they calculated the produced upward force, and thus the shape of the most adapted aerofoil.

Caroline of North, December 17 1903

the historical take-off of Orville Wright on "Flyer I": With 10h30 this morning, a dream as old as humanity was concretized: the man went Master of the airs. The Wright brothers indeed have just achieved what they ambitionnaient: first stabilized flight of a motorized machine heavier than the air. As of this evening, they telegraphed the fantastic news with their father, in Dayton, in Ohio: "Thursday morning, made a success of four flights thanks to winds of 40 km/h." Their apparatus that they call from now on Flyer I, initially controlled by Orville, took off of a wood rail 12 m length close to their camping of Kitty Hawk. It remained in the air during 12 seconds and traversed 36,5 m in the medium of changes of wind. Wilbur carried out at midday the fourth and last flight, which lasted 59 S. It traversed 260 m before falling on the ground. But a strong gust obliged it with all to stop. There were 5 witnesses, all the men of the area, who were not especially impressed since they had seen Wright, during years spent, to accomplish several other longer flights. The aviators were delighted by their success, persuaded which they found the key to build a practical apparatus of use. They are four years of hard today and patient labour which bore their fruits, the scientific approach which they had having enabled them to succeed where so many others had failed. During their many tests, they never took useless risks, always privileging the comprehension of the physical phenomenon before the test, and supporting the whole of their work by a solid knowledge of the aerodynamic phenomena. One year ago, after an autumn rich in success, Wilbur and Orville had spent the winter in their workshop of Dayton to work on an engine and propellers intended to propel the sailplane. At the beginning of the experimental phase with Kitty Hawk, three months ago, a series of delays due primarily to the weakness of the transmission chain had worried them. They have then fears to be beaten, in their conquest of the air, by Samuel Langley. But the failure of the second launching of the Aerodrome gave again a new hope to them. The winter was there, the boys had promised to their father to be at the house for Christmas, but they were firmly decided to fly. December 14, with the first attempt, Flyer I left the track but fell down immediately on the ground: Wilbur was not accustomed to the orders. Yesterday finally, repairs were completed, but the wind was too weak. This morning, the ideal conditions were practically met and, in the winds of the Atlantic, the Wright brothers wrote a fantastic page in the history of aviation.

Huffman Meadow, September 15 1904

For now eight days, the Wright brothers have taken again their tests of Flyer II with a catapult equipping the base, from now on named Simms Station. Launched using a counterweight of 270 kg, Wilbur succeeded in carrying out today a turn controlled in flight. The Wright brothers can now consider the takeoff of their airplane without more having to worry about the force of the wind.

Simms Station, September 20 1904

Wilbur Wright carries out the first flight in closed loop of an airplane, on board Flyer II. It traverses 1240 m into 1 min 36 S, in the presence of several witnesses, of which Amos Root, owner of a local newspaper.

the United States, January 1 1905

"Imagine an engine which left its rails and which climbs in the airs right on you... an engine which would not have any more white wheels... but wings in the place." Here how, of its eye of spectator, Amos Root describes the flight of Flyer, the apparatus of the Wright brothers, in a magazine of small diffusion appeared this month, Remarques on the apiculture. Since December 1903, where a series of articles based on hearsays had told in an inaccurate way the historical adventure of their first flight, the American press had only very little reported progress of Wright. Indeed, they put much time to publish their work, thinking that it was to better keep secret the prototypes that they had conceived during these years of hard labour.

Washington, January 24 1905

the Defence Department declines the offer of the Wright brothers. One week ago, they proposed with the government to sell one of their machine with the army. Their note with the congress specified that the role of the airplane "would be to carry out recognitions and to carry messages".

Paris, July 18 1905

That emotions on the Seine between Sevres and Billancourt! Gabriel Voisin prepares to test two sailplanes with floats which it built, pertaining to Archdeacon and Blériot. These apparatuses were towed by the motorboat Antoinette La Rapière. The weather is splendid and the first flight, on the Archdeacon sailplane, proceeds perfectly: gone up to 4 or 5 meters in height, the machine stole 300 meters and was posed as soon as the pilot of the boat to cut gases. The second test, on the Blériot hydroplane, is less happy. The boat makes a bad departure: the cable of towing stiffens too quickly and causes the yaw transversalle sailplane. The apparatus leaves water and is turned over on the left wing, imprisoning Gabriel Voisin under the net to the "piano wires". It is of accuracy that Decarme, one of its workmen, withdraws it water. Louis Blériot, who attends the scene, is disappointed: he is satisfied to admit that the wings of the apparatus are too hollow. It is the second forced bath of Neighbor in the Seine. First place had on June 8 close to Billancourt, on a sailplane completed in the workshops of Edouard Surcouf. After a first successful flight of 17 meters, the sailplane had to him also piqué in water at the time of the second test.

Dayton, October 5 1905

Today, Wilbur Wright made a success of a flight of a little more than 38 min. On Flyer III, the very last engine apparatus which it developed with his Orville brother, it traversed 38,96 km above their improvised ground of tests with Huffman Prairie. It is thus the first flight of more than one half an hour of the Wright brothers. It shows that Flyer III is the first of their engine apparatuses which are successful perfectly. Flyer III is conceived according to models' précedents but with a scale more developed slightly: 12,34 m. The remarkable engine of 15 CH used the last year was preserved, but of new propellers were gone up. The pilot directs the apparatus like before, lengthened on the level of the wings. Wright began their tests as from June, carrying out since many flights and being exerted with complete and connected turns. They are filled with enthusiasm by the way in which the apparatus is operated. Since the beginning of the year, they try to interest the military authorities of the United States and England in the performances of their machine to make a tool of recognition of it. That did not give a result until now, but the success of the last model could encourage them to renew their steps.

Paris, July 29 1906

the friends of Santos-Dumont are not at the end of their surprises! In a workshop of Neuilly, they attended a spectacle as curious as unexpected. Having decided to devote itself to heaviest than the air, the Brazilian aviator built, with the assistance of the brothers Voisin, a strange airplane. Of a scale of 10,05 m for length a 12,20 m and been driven by an engine Antoinette of 24 CH, the apparatus actuates a propeller located at the back. The pilot, upright, is held with the back, in front of the engine and the propeller. At this point in time the object of such an amount of astonishment intervenes: it is called Kuigno and it is an ass! It is harnessed with the machine to provide traction. At the step, the ass starts to draw as much as it can it. Waste of time and effort. The poor animal is quite unable to take speed to actuate the apparatus. Furious, the inventor swore himself not to deal never again with the animal gente...

Paris, November 12 1906

Santos-Dumont did not waste time. October 23, it carried out already an exploit while stealing 60 m with a height from 2 to 3 m. It will try to still better do. Today, a thousand of people, among whom president Archdeacon and of the Members of the Commission of control of the Aero club of France, are in Bagatelle to attend the new departure of the Brazilian one. This one will try to steal 100m. With the assistance of Gabriel Voisin, Santos-Dumont modified its machine, the airplane 14 bis. It is 16h30, the daring pilot starts the engine. The 14 bis rolls 300 m on grass then rises: it reaches 15 m of altitude. Not to lose the control of its machine, Santos-Dumont does not try to transfer, it atterit right in front of him, concerning gently the ground. It is carried in triumph by the public. The Commission meets on the spot. It evaluates the duration of the flight with 21s and the distance to 220 m.

Paris, February 2 1907

the Delagrange sculptor, first customer of the Neighbor: he came to order an airplane.

New York, May 18 1907

Wilbur Wright leaves for Europe. It will continue there the discussions of the terms of sale of Flyer III.

France, October 10 1907

Today, in Buc, the first REP finally took off from... 6 Mr. Since April, Robert Esnault-Pelterie does not cease improving this plane, which it baptized of his initial. The weak performance of the flight does not decrease its satisfaction of the correct operation of the control device which it developed. Since the beginning of its research, Esnault-Pelterie seeks to carry out a single control unit. On its plane, a vertical lever, a such handle with brush, is placed in front of the pilot. It is assembled on Cardan joint. In its longitudinal displacements, it acts on the elevator and longitudinal stability. In its transverse displacements, it acts on the warping of the wings. If the apparatus has suddenly pricked of the nose, the pilot draws this lever behind to rectify the plane; if it bucks, it pushes it ahead. To order the rudder, a swing bar actuated by the feet makes it possible to control the amplitude of the turns. It is a very new technique of piloting. The pilot has a free hand to adjust the engine. Already, the other manufacturers envy this revolutionary system.

Lisieux, November 13 1907

the helicopter of Horned: to transform the propellers into wings! It is the daring bet of a Norman mechanic, Paul Cornu, of Lisieux. It was harnessed with the manufacture of a helicopter and seems to have succeeded in making take off its machine.

Paris, November 16 1907

the "Young lady n°19" of Santos-Dumont flies. It weighs only 106 kg, weight of the pilot included/understood. The Demoiselle accomplished a stable and easy flight of 200 m, with the modest altitude of 6 m. The dream of Brazilian continues.

Paris, December 18 1907

Whereas the majority of the pilots adopted the formula of the biplane, Louis Blériot reaffirms his will to fly on monoplane, that it judges more aerodynamic. It makes take off the monoplane after one year of eagerness.

Issy-les-Moulineaux, January 13 1908

In the presence of rare witnesses, Henri Farman has just achieved the first flight of 1 km in closed loop of the history before the Commission of the Aero club.

Mans, August 8 1908

Wilbur Wright proves its superiority. It has just made conceal the French who doubted that the Wright brothers really carried out the flights which they claim to have accomplished in the United States. In the presence of many French pioneers of aviation, joined together with the racecourse of Hunaudières, close to Mans, it succeeded in flying in loop during one minute and forty-five seconds.

Issy-les-Moulineaux, September 6 1908

Leon Delagrange holds the air 29 minutes 53 seconds, with 6m height at a distance of 24,40 km.

New York, September 15 1908

Farman invents to me word aileron. It thus baptizes the shutters in end of wing.

Rheims, October 30 1908

new Spectacle out of Champagne! A machine pétaradante flies over the countryside. On his board, Henri Farman connects Bouy, close to Mourmelon, in Rheims, carrying out the first flight of city to city of the history. He A traverses 27 km into 20 min.

France, July 24 1909

They is nothing any more but three with being in track: Charles of Lambert, Hubert Latham and Louis Blériot. All hope to gain the 25000 Franks-or offered by the Daily Mail to the first aviator who will cross the English Channel. Of the three pilots, it is Louis Blériot who seems most badly placed to gain l"épreuve. In a few years, Blériot spent the dowry of his wife and her personal fortune to manufacture planes which are not sold. At the edge of the bankruptcy, with the tenacity of the shipwrecked men who cling to their raft, it conceived, at the beginning of this year, Blériot XI, a superb monoplane. Alexandre Anzani provided him a 3 Cylinder motor in range, which develops 25 CH. Rustic, its cast iron neither is trimmed nor sanded, but it is a reliable machine, although hot oil escapes regularly from the cylinders, adherent at the end of a few times the plane of a viscous layer which plugs the pilot. Blériot then left a type XII. At the same time, it was registered with all the air meetings to reinflate its case. July 3, it is in Douai to try to beat with monoplane XI a record of endurance and distance. It leaves there victorious, but with ankle left atrociously burned by the contact too direct of the muffler. Untiring, the following day, it is with Port-Aviation and, with Blériot XI, gains the price of Archdeacon. But the fate is baited: July 13, while returning from Chevilly, Blériot XI takes the rain and the wings mouthfuls of water must be réentoilées. Lastly, July 18, in Douai where the meeting continues, Blériot allocates the Mahieu price and the price speed. Alas, fire takes in the casing and burns again to him the left foot. But Louis Blériot makes fun about it; in spite of its wound, the 21, it settles with the Terminus hotel in Calais. It decided, it will run with Blériot XI, in spite of the doubtful state of the wings.

France, July 25 1909

Louis Blériot successful the crossing of the English Channel. The storm was calmed yesterday evening and with 23h30, Blériot decided that it would be for this morning. Alfred the White awoke it with 2h10 and it left in car to the farm Oil cake where its faithful mechanics Mamet and Colin beside the plane waited. With 4h10, Blériot made a very short trial flight towards Sangatte and with 4h35, it sinks towards the English Channel. Quickly, opposite the Huts, it flies over the destroyer the Escopette on board of which Mrs. Blériot is. Then, it is alone with the immense sea from where the fog goes up. It has a compass, but it is blocked. It listens to the noises of sound "three legs" which it lubricates. Lastly, a chalky line takes shape at the horizon. That must be Deal, it too is in North. It wants to go to Dover. Under him, a flotilla of ships advances towards the south. They go to Cowes for the visit of the Tsar. He transfers on the left, the port takes shape in front of him with his cliffs. The wind and the movements prevent it from going up. In a hollow, a green spot, it avoids houses, cuts the engine and falls down more than it is not posed on a meadow of North Fall Meadow. It is 5h13. Great Britain is not completely any more an island.

Bordeaux, January 4 1910

Leon Delagrange loses a wing and is killed, on board its monoplane Blériot XI.

New York, May 29 1910

Glenn Curtiss flew over the Hudson river in its Albany Flyer. Carrying out in 2h51min the 245 km which separate Albany and New York.

San Francisco, January 18 1911

Eugene Ely is the first aviator to have posed his apparatus on a ship. Taking off of the ground of Tanforan, to the orders of the Albany Flyer modified of Curtiss, it comes right on the USS Pennsylvania which is anchored to 19 km in bay of San Francisco.

Saint-Malo, September 4 1911

Record of altitude for Roland Garros: 3910 m.

Pasadena, November 5 1911

In 55 days, Rodgers crosses the USA: 6950 km.

France, April 16 1912

American Harriett Quimby flies away of Dover, April 16, at 5 a.m. 35 min, board a Blériot monoplane, to land in Hardelot, about thirty kilometers of Calais, at 6 a.m. 30 min. It is the first woman to make a success of the overhead crossing of the English Channel.

Friedrichshafen, December 31 1912

the famous airship of the account Ferdinand Von zeppelin transported more than 8000 passengers since its first flight, in 1908. It there has two years, the count Von zeppelin, old general of cavalry, entrusted the exploitation of these lines to the Delag company. Its airships reign as Masters in the German sky.

Bizerte, September 23 1913

Garros made a success of the crossing of the Mediterranean. It is 5h47 with Frejus-Saint-Raphaël, when Morane-Saulnier is released. Heavy its 8 hours of fuel, it rolls a long time before rising. As soon as Roland Garros reaches 1500 m, it sees right Corsica in front of him. Towards 7h20, a sinister noise shakes all the plane. The engine still turns, but there is a tear on the cap, and it leaves the oil drops there that the wind launches to him to the figure. One hour is passed, Ajaccio east in sight, the engine still turns. Sardinia is not far and a mechanic is in Cagliari. He sinks towards the south. Sardinia is covered with clouds, it must go down to 800 m, then to 600. With Cagliari, any signal on the ground of the mechanic. Dilemma. Garros has one hour of delay, the reserve of fuel is used. It decides to continue and climbs slowly around 3000 m where consumption will be reduced. Two hours later, it sees destroyers. It cuts lighting and fall towards the sea. To 300 m, the coast takes shape. It restarts the engine and reached the parade ground of Bizerte.

Saint-Pétersbourg, July 11 1914

Saint-Pétersbourg - Kiev, is 2560 km in 10h30 min, achieved by the manufacturer Igor Sikorsky with the orders of its Ilia-Mourometz and with passengers on board.

France, September 4 1914

the aviators observes the German advance.

France, April 1 1915

After 3 months of research, Roland Garros developed a propeller of special form allowing the passage of the balls of the machine-gun located behind it.

Chelm (Poland), June 21 1916

a breakdown of engine put a term at the incredible exploit of lieutenant Anselme Marchal. After having especially made equip Nieuport to hold the air fourteen hours, Marchal flew away yesterday evening of the airport of Nancy in direction of Germany. At three hours of the morning, it passed above Berlin, where it threw a rain of leaflets, then it carried on its road towards Russia. Unfortunately, a breakdown obliged to land close to Chelm, with less than one hundred kilometers of the border. The aviator was made prisoner. With its apparatus, Marchal will have covered 349 km moreover than the preceding record of the world of distance.

Seattle, July 15 1916

He is a trader out of wooden and is called Boeing; it has a plane, baptized Bluebill, and a company, Pacific Aero Products. The town of Seattle, in the state of Washington, perhaps will become, thanks to him, a center of aviation.

Lagnicourt, October 28 1916

Disappearance of two large German aces: Max Immelmann (on June 28, 1916), called by his/her comrades the Eagle of Lille and the German pilot Oswald Boëlcke, holder of forty victories.

Western Face, April 30 1917

the red Baron makes devastations. French knows what they speak when they call the German Manfred von Richthofen the red Baron. Red blood like the D1 Albatross which it controls in this fatal month. During the month, it cut down with him only twenty and one English planes.

France, April 21 1918

Manfred von Richthofen, the red Baron, joined his victims in death.

Thurso, May 23 1919

They wanted to be the first to cross the Atlantic by means of an apparatus other than a seaplane: the English Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve failed to pay of their life this ambition.

Town Cape, 20 Mars 1920

Two pilots of the RAF, the Brand Captain and the lieutenant-colonel Van Ryneveld, rejoined South Africa. They started from Brooklands in Surrey and they needed 45 days and three apparatuses to be able to join Wynberg where they landed today.

Dakar, 31 Mars 1920

After a memorable tour, only Bréguet 16 of the Commander Vuillemin and Lieutenant Chalus landed with 10h30 in Dakar. The raid will have cost the life to the Laperrine General. Passenger in one of the apparatuses of the group Rolland, it died in an accident at the time of an emergency landing in the desert. The Dagnaux pilot, it, were found. Since Villacoublay, Vuillemin and Chalus traversed 6630 km in 21 stages, crossing the Mediterranean by the Balearic Islands.

Mount Blanc, July 30 1921

It is Switzerland of Geneva, François Durafour, who will have finally made a success of this first: a landing on the most top of the Alps, the Mount Blanc. The plane could land on the vast snowfield to the collar of the Dome.

the United States, September 4 1922

It is only 25 years old and it is already a hero. Lieutenant James Harold Doolitlle, known as Jimmy, has just carried out a historical flight: he is the first to have crossed the United States of is in west in less than 12 midnight. On a total course of 3480 km, Doolittle made one stop, with Kelly Field, in Texas, to supply itself while carburizing. It was posed at San Diego in California, 21 hours and 19 minutes after having left Florida.

France, 31 Mars 1924

a plane which controls its flight, it is the end of the tiredness and the permanent attention of the pilots who supervise and correct the attitudes of the machine. Two methods are gathered to make fly the plane by itself: an apparatus controls the stable flight and another directs it by means of an established radio-relay system on the ground. Stabilities horizontal and transverse are ensured by a group of gyroscopes which react according to the laws of inertia. The resultant of these orders is transmitted to the control surfaces of the plane by a system of cables and electric motors. The pilot can operate a serrated roller to indicate the selected course. Thus to release from manual piloting, it can turn its attention on the operation of the engines. The first tests of a plane with automatic piloting go back to 1918 with work of the captain max Butcher who, as of July 1917, made take off and land a plane without the assistance of the pilot. Encouraged by the Ferrié General, it constitutes a team with Etampes in order to continue her experiments on behalf of the ministry for the War. It must make with the competition of the navy, which works on its side to a similar project.

Seattle, September 28 1924

For the first time, from the planes come to achieve a turn of the world. Five months and half after their departure of Seattle, the Chicago and the New Orleans, both World Cruiser of this extraordinary tour, regained their starting point, acclaimed and celebrated by a crowd of 50000 people. Ordered by the lieutenants Lowell H. Smith and Leslie P. Arnold, the apparatuses traversed 49561 km in 371 hours and 11 minutes of flight, thus carrying out an average of 125 km/h.

Stamps, August 9 1925

Maurice Drouhain and Jules Landry is the heros of the day. On board Goliath F62 single-engined aircraft, they established a double record of the world: that of distance in closed loop with 4400 km, and that of duration with 40. 12 min 12 dryness of uninterrupted flight. To 3 a.m. this morning, they are posed whereas there remain to them only 10 liters of fuel. As for the manufacturer Henri Farman, it thus improves its record of duration of more than two hours.

New York, May 20 1927

Charles Lindbergh took off, despizing weather conditions. And, until the last minute, the question remained posed: who will leave the first of Lindbergh, Chamberlin or Byrd? For ten days, the three competitors had waited Roosevelt Field, almost coast at coast, a favorable sign of the weather. This night, anxious to be even made double, Lindbergh decides to leave. The ultimate checking of the plane is undertaken. The tanks are filled. The carburettor is supplied with hot air. The grease which protects certain places from the apparatus is removed. A short rest, then Lindbergh springs on the track. The Spirit of Saint Louis rolls, hesitates, and, finally, rises in the sky in direction of Paris.

Le Bourget, May 21 1927

Charles Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic Ocean. It is 22h22 in Paris this Saturday when Lindbergh is posed on the ground of encumbered Le Bourget of an incredible crowd, informed of its arrival since it passed above the coasts Normans. Since 33 hours and 30 minutes that the engine, Wright of the J-5 type, deafens it in the small cockpit of the NX-211; it does not feel any more tiredness, it made place with the excitation. It met during the flight all the possible conditions. Icing with descent with the short-nap cloth of the floods, low clouds and a little clear sky. The controller of flight, created by French Airspeed indicator, as well as the indicators of turn and crossfall allowed him to control without looking at outside. He passed to Ireland at the point envisaged. The Orteig price is well gained.

Australia, June 10 1928

Charles Kingsford-Smith and the second pilot Charles T P. Ulm, both Australian, and two Americans - the navigator Harry W Lyons and the radio operator J W Warner - take off of Oakland (California) on May 31 in direction of Australia, on board Fokker Southern Cross. After two stopovers - in Honolulu and the Fiji islands -, they make a success of their crossing of the Pacific Ocean by reaching Brisbane (State of Queensland, Australia) on June 9 and Sydney the following day, at the end of a flight of 83. 35 min. Kingsford-Smith will repeat, but in opposite direction, between October 19 and November 5, 1934, with Lockheed Altair Lady Southern Cross and an effective flight of 51. 49 min.

Africa, January 8 1930

"the eye of a monstrous cyclops, perched on the roof of Africa." Thus Walter Mittelholzer describes Kibo, most beautiful of the two volcanos capping Kilimandjaro, which it has just flown over for the first time. Familiar of the flights in mountainous area, this Swiss exploring photographer decided to tackle Kilimandjaro, culminating to 6010 Mr. With the pilot Alfred Künzle, it takes off by a sky without cloud and flies over the populated plains of zebras and antelopes. Their Fokker is stripped to the maximum to decrease its mass and to increase its ceiling. Close to the goal, Künzle diverts the plane towards the northern face, in the search of ascending currents, and goes up to more than 6000 Mr. Mittelholzer, fascinated, forgets of it its migraine due to the lack of oxygen and point its objective on the open crater of Kibo. Half an hour later, the crew regains the base camp.

Great Britain, January 16 1930

It is a discovery which should have very great consequences for aeronautics. Frank Whittle, an English engineer, has just deposited a preliminary patent for a turbojet. They was the officers of the RAF designed an engine which, instead of printing a movement with a propeller, ejects a gas flow creating the propulsion. The surrounding air passes in a compressor to rotor, which increases its temperature. This compressed air emerges then in a combustion chamber where the fuel is burned with constant pressure. The relaxation caused by combustion is done initially through a turbine assembled on the same axis that the compressor and continues in a conduit of exit, causing a force of reaction.

San Francisco, February 1 1930

the seaplane competes with the boat for the crossing of bay of San Francisco. Tynan Jr, which has just launched its Air Ferries in the Californian sky, believes in it firmly. Its "amphibious trams" ensure the connection between San Francisco, Alameda, Oakland and Vallejo. 100 000 people lose each day several hours to cross bay by maritime ferry. To attract most fortunate of them, Tynan and its associates misent on the quality of their services: the landing stages, located close to the terminus of the shuttles, are in the heart of the business districts; the frequency of the connections is high (three times per hour); finally, the amphibious seaplanes used, taking off and landing on plants artificial, ensure the safety, while reducing to less than two minutes the time wasted during the loadings and unloadings, thanks to floating docks.

the United States, May 6 1930

the last-born child of the large American manufacturer, Model 200 Monomail, whose aérodynamisme was particularly neat, deserves its qualifier of modern transport aircraft. At the origin of its creation, Eddy Hubbard wanted to design a monoplane of transport entirely out of metal. At once, the engineers from Boeing put themselves at work in the greatest secrecy. The fruit of their efforts is impressive. Monomail, entirely metal, is equipped with a wing low, slightly tilted, and of a retractable landing gear. The compartment for the post office is located in front of the cockpit, which remained open.

New York, September 3 1930

both frenchies would never have imagined such a reception! New York is in jubilation to acclaim the French crew which has just overcome the Atlantic Ocean. Party on September 1 at 10. 55 of Le Bourget, they reached Curtiss Field, close to New York, in 37 hours and 18 minutes. A first carried out at the mean velocity of 167 km/h. The two heroes tried this exploit in all knowledge of cause. Dieudonné Costes, chief of edge of Breguet 19 baptized Point of interrogation, once again, showed its know-how. As for Maurice Bellonte, one knew already his talents of navigator trained at the school of air transport. The preparation of the crossing of the Atlantic was meticulous. The plane, painted in red, is decorated of a white question mark, affixed in fact by mechanics in 1929, whereas the Breguet factory, which prepared the apparatus, kept secret its future destination jealously. Now, it is known and the beautiful red biplane flies away towards the sea. The two men can communicate only by means of messages written on bits of paper, such as: "you will give me a little chicken and hot bubble." They fly over Southampton at 11 a.m. 50; at 1 p.m. 45, the Irish coast; finally at 2 p.m. 50, the Shannon river. Between 19 and 22 hours, the apparatus must be diverted its road, because of atmospheric turbulences, and makes a hook towards north. From 22 hours at 4 a.m. 35, the Point of interrogation again makes hook, towards the south this time, to join the United States by the most direct line. At 11 a.m. 25,24 hours after the departure, it will be located by the station of Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon. Above Boston, a plane comes to the meeting from Costes and Bellonte which are known at the end of their sorrows. Indeed, they land in Curtiss Field 11 minutes after midnight. Hardly left the apparatus, the two heroes are carried in triumph by crowd to a hangar where wait all the French personalities then present in New York: the single-handed sailor Alain Gerbault, the player of tennis Jean Borotra... One entonne the Marseillaise. Suddenly, Costes and Bellonte notice a large thread-like silhouette which smiles to them since a corner of the hangar. Charles Lindbergh, came there to congratulate them in person. It is at this moment which the French include/understand that they are, them also, entered the legend. It is then the parade in Broadway ave, under thousands of telephone sheets of directories falling from this sky which they overcame.

Istres, June 10 1931

10520 Kilometers. This time, the record of distance in closed loop is largely beaten. Brix and Doret can be satisfied with their Trait of union, monoplane Dewoitine D.33, with the hurled lines, grace to which they traversed this distance, without supply, in 70 hours and 11 minutes. It is the first time that the course of the 10 000 km is thus crossed.

Roosevelt Field, July 1 1931

the Winnie Mae of Oklahoma returned without encumbers of its turn of the world. With the orders of Lockheed Vega, Wiley Post, which, if it is an ace of piloting, is not one-eyed! Gatty, the navigator is, just like Post, decided well to go more quickly than during the precedent turn of the world, in 1924. June 23, they take off of Roosevelt Field (New York) at 4 a.m. 55. The first stage leads them to Newfoundland. They take off then for Europe: course on England. To fall it the night, Post controls with the instruments, helped by the indications of Gatty. They will be posed then in Moscow, then in Novosibirsk, in central Russia. To gain Canada, they must fly over the Rocky Mountains, and, under a beating rain, they land in Edmonton. Lastly, at 0 a.m. 47, they arrive at Roosevelt Field where a crowd of 10 000 people awaits them. Post and Gatty thus traversed some 25 000 km in 207 hours - is eight days and 15 hours - and 51 minutes.

Tokyo, August 26 1931

It is as a technical adviser for the Side American that Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne, left for a reconnaissance flight towards the East. July 29, the couple of school of New York, on board a seaplane Lockheed Sirius, and will have to reach many stages before the arrival in Japan then in China, goal of the voyage. Anne is charged with the radio. The most beautiful compliment which it is ever received besides came from a radio operator operator on his way of taking and of sending messages: "no man could better do", says him it. The weather is terrible. It passes by Ottawa, Point Barrow, where the few white lost at the Eskimos accomodate them with stupor. Lastly, they arrive to Tokyo in spite of a persistent fog. In a few days, they will leave towards China.

Oran, 26 Mars 1932

the pilots Lucien Bossoutrot and Maurice Rossi have achieved for two years of many performances. They have this time carried the record of distance in closed loop to 10 620,480 km with the orders of Blériot 110. And that, in spite of a leakage with a tank after 40 hours of flight, which caused the loss of 30 fuel L. Moreover, the conditions of sale made fall the average from the plane to 145 km/h. Blériot 110 was drawn, at the beginning of the year 1929, by engineer Filippo Zappata which conceived it especially to beat records of distance. Blériot was baptized Joseph Brix in homage to the aviator missing here a few months in the Ural. After a first trial flight, on May 1930, it quickly was essential like an apparatus on exceptional qualities. This record was held since June 1931 by Brix, Doret and Cadiou on Dewoitine 33 Trait of union.

the Cape, November 18 1932

the competition beats its full between the Mollison husbands: Amy, ex-Johnson, celebrate it actress, do better than her Jim husband at the distance London it Cape, than it crossed in four days and seven hours on board her Puss Moth, the Desert Cloud. To establish this new record, Amy risked a night flight between Cameroun and Angola "I spent 13 hours to traverse 1300 km, without visibility", it declared with his arrival. The marriage of Mollison constitutes in England the lovesong of the year. They became engaged the day of their meeting, with the Quaglino, restoring in vogue in London in this moment. At the time, alluring it Jim, who had exchanged his accent of Glasgow for the speech to punish of Oxford, would have been promised to a young aristocrat. The weddings of Jim and Amy took place on July 29 with Saint-Georges Hanover Square in the most strict intimacy. What did not prevent the crowd of ruer at the exit of the church to see celebrates it couple to flee towards her hotel. Less than three weeks later, August 18, Jim took off of Port-Marnock, in Ireland, to try the transatlantic first Europe America in solo. Its Puss Moth, The Hearts Content, with 725 gasoline L, is eight times the capacity of origin. Mollison faced winds of face of 65 km/h and rejoined Pennfield Ridge (Canada) in 31 hours. It had nothing any more but two hours of gasoline to the arrival, having wandered seven hours of a fog. Which risks will it take tomorrow?

Native, February 11 1933

After the abandonment of the seaplanes Latécoère, the line of South America thinks of having found the plane ideal with Arc-in-ciel. Controlled by Mermoz, this three-engined designed by engineer Couzinet made a success of his first crossing of the Atlantic. After a tour in Argentina and in Brazil, it is on the point of regaining Europe. The idea of this experimental raid returns to Mermoz. It is really filled with enthusiasm by this revolutionary plane, built around a low value cantilever. January 12, it takes off of Le Bourget with six people on board. After a first stopover with Istres, a broken pane stops the voyage to Port-Etienne, from where it sets out again the 13 towards Saint-Louis of Senegal. Delayed by pouring rain, the plane leaves Africa the 16 in the morning and lands the very same day in Natal. It crossed the ocean of 14. 27 minutes of flight at a regular speed of 230 km/h with a maximum safety. Accomodated triumphantly for this performance, it is celebrated in Rio, then sets out again for Buenos Aires and joined Natal.

the Cape, February 14 1933

the new four-engined plane Of Imperial Airways, Armstrong Whitworth 15 baptized Atalanta, arrived from London today, after a flight of 71 hours endurance. To rejoin the South-African capital, Imperail Airways chose this plane of an autonomy from 600 to 900 km, which can transport nine passengers, mail and freight at the speed of 185 km/h. Anxious to meet the needs for the company, its originator, John Lloyd, a monoplane in the place of the traditional biplane drew. The monoplane, by its aerodynamic configuration, is faster in flight. The configuration high wing and fixed train are appropriate for the African lines.

Paris, October 26 1933

It is not the first time that it comes to Paris. Charles Lindbergh, six years after his historical exploit, returns visit to the Parisian ones. This time, its seaplane landed on the Seine and enthusiastic crowd saw, accompanying the colonel, a delicate silhouette; the wife of Lucky Lindy, Anne Morrow-Lindbergh, is voyage. Discrete, she did not want to better do herself to know the Parisian ones. However, it will be at the sides of her husband, at the time of the visit obliged with the embassy of the United States. It is with much courtesy that it will leave to a horde photographers take stereotypes of the couple. The voyage of Lindbergh has nothing to do with tourism. The pilot, recently committed by the Side American Airways, explores the transatlantic road of the North which will allow, perhaps, a first air service between the United States and Europe.

Darwin Port, May 23 1934

It is large, beautiful and is not afraid of nothing. Top of its 24 years, this New Zealand young person with the radiant smile has just astounded the world. Party alone with the orders of an old man Gipsy de Moth with whom it was not likely reasonably any to succeed, Joan Batten triumphed over the 16 000 km which separate London de Port Darwin, in Australia. It made the voyage of 14 days, 23 hours and 30 minutes. It beats the record of Amy Johnson of more than four days! Girl of a dentist, born a few weeks after the exploit of Blériot, it received her first flight with famous Kignsford-Smith. Unpleasantly surprising its family while deciding to become pilot and not pianist, it leaves in 1929 for London in order to pass its private patent and to set up, with a youthful enthusiasm, its flight towards Australia. Deaf person with the irony of the journalists vis-a-vis to her two preceding failures, Joan testifies, by her notch, of the will of the women who decided to fly.

Oakland, January 12 1935

They are 10 000 to have been given go on the track of Oakland. It is not yet midday when they see finally so much awaited Vega. With the orders, Amelia Earhart is smiling. There is evil to imagine that the young woman, part of Honolulu, covered 3875 km into 18. 16 minutes. If it is carried in triumph, it is not by what it acts of a woman. She is the first pilot to have achieved such an exploit. She had however believed not to be able to leave. The sky of Honolulu was covered with clouds and a tropical waterspout had just struck the city. Faithful to its reputation is strong of its experiment, it decided despite everything to take off. She does not regret it.

the United States, May 15 1935

Taylor Cub E-2 is a plane so simple that even a child can control. In Savannah, in Georgie, young a 11 year old boy flew only on board this small plane, designed by Oilman Piper. In 1929, this last invested in the firm of aviation of the Taylor brothers. But, little after America sinks in the depression. To start again the sales, Piper suggests building an elementary plane at a minimal price. Thus is born the model E-2 Cub, light and compact, propelled by a Brownbach engine of 20ch. Hélas! The engine output is insufficient, and the plane can hardly fly. It is the bankruptcy. But Piper continues its idea. It repurchases the actions of the Taylor company and team this time E-2 Cub of Continental Motor of 37 CH with four cylinders cooled by air. The plane is proposed at the cost of 1325 $: it obtains an enormous success.

the United States, December 17 1935

It could not y have better conclusion for this trial flight. American Airlines modified its purchase order in Douglas. It does not act any more maintaining to deliver 10 planes, but 20, divided into eight DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) and 12 in version DC-3. DST can transport 14 people installed in superimposed berths 2 X 2. Version DC-3 will carry 21 passengers sitting in traditional seats. This version will be available only in eight month. On the ground, them to distinguish from the DC-2, the simplest manner for the layman is to count the windows. The DC-2 has of them seven along the fuselage and the DC-3 counts eight of them. The trial flight took place at the aerodrome of Clover Field, in California. The apparatus took off at 3 p.m., controlled by Carl Cover, assisted by Fred Stineman and of Frank Collebohm. It was 1. 40 of flight without history. For Douglas, this success is encouraging. The study of this plane required 4 500 000 $ of loan in the State. The profitability of the apparatus is astonishing. With 21 seats against 14 with the DC-2, the operating costs are only 10 % higher. The transport of passengers can become profitable.

Newark, January 14 1936

Howard Hugues added a new trophy to its table of hunting. After having removed there is a few months the record of the world speed, it has just established that of the transcontinental flight fastest. It took off of Burbank, in California, with the orders of a plane Northtrop Gamma rented with the aviatrice Jacqueline Cochran. The apparatus was modified by its care. It was driven it by a new Wright engine out of star developing 1000 CH and actuating a propeller with three blades. Of west in is, it traversed without stopover all the American territory. After 9 a.m. 36 minutes 10 seconds of flight, it lands in Newark, in the New Jersey. It held the mean velocity of 417 km/h during this flight. It beat once again the record speed established by Rosco Turner, which enables to foresee the transcontinental flights of line.

Villacoublay, June 23 1936

Décidément, nothing stops the French aviatrice Maryse Hilsz. Hardly handing-over of its accident, which has occurred last May, it again tries to be exceeded on board a biplane Potez 50 been driven by a gnome engine & the Rhone of 900 CH. This time, it beats the female record of altitude while climbing up to 14 309 m; what leaves it to 266 m of the world record of Soviet Kokinadi. It is a beautiful performance, because the flight at great altitude is very different from that carried out in low layer.

Paris, August 1 1936

Louis Blériot dies in the distress. Aviation had given him glory and fortune. It, which mowed so many young lives, let die in its bed as if he were a man like the others. Engineer of an immense talent and aviator with the multiple exploits, it had been one of the first to be impassioned for the technique of the flight which contributed to improve. Its temerity was such as it had been worth the nickname of the man to him who always fell. These last years, of the financial problems had constrained it to close its workshops and it was almost without resources when it was carried by a heart attack.

New York, May 6 1937

It is 19. 30 when the airship Hindenburg coming from Berlin arrives at its mast of mooring at the ground of Lakehurst, close to New York. Suddenly, it ignites. There are 36 victims including 13 passengers. There was 97 people on board. In New York, one speaks about accident, but, in certain mediums of Reich, one holds only the assumption of sabotage. There is not a doubt that this catastrophe, occurred in the United States, is likely to put an end to the transport of passengers per airship. Last year, more than 3500 people crossed the Atlantic aboard German airships without the least accident being deplored. The line was divided between the Graf zeppelin and the Hindenburg. Since 1928, the Graf zeppelin traversed 1 350 000 km and transported 13 000 people under conditions of comfort which one does not meet on the aircraft.

Peaceful, July 2 1937

last flight of Amelia Earhart. She said: "We travel northern and southern", and then more nothing. A terrible silence which inserted Amelia in the legend. The aviatrice had left on board Lockheed Electra 10th, in company of the navigator Fred Noonan, July 1. All had been avoided with meticulousness, except perhaps the radio. Amelia had had to leave in Miami a long antenna, however necessary during the long crossing of the Pacific. Nevertheless, all occurs for best to Puerto Rico, then with Natal, the starting point for the transatlantic stage. The aviatrice is impressed by the landscapes which it flies over: Dakar, Arabia, then Karachi, Calcutta and Rangoon. After having passed by Singapore and Bandung, the crew gains Australia and New Guinea. There remains to them still 11 000 km to be covered. Up to now, the pilot is conquered by his apparatus. They must be posed in Howland, a very small point in the Pacific which they will never join. The messages of Amelia are scrambled by parasites. During hours, apparatuses and ships try to find the crew. They disappeared forever in the sky, but not in the memories.

France, November 19 1937

One can be a writer, philosophical, pilot and also scientist. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is an authentic inventor and it proves by depositing in one month two patents at the national institute of the patent rights. After its device for landing of plane, published on March 11, 1936, here its "new methods for the landing of the planes without visibility, with device and apparatus of realization". This method makes it possible to permanently know the exact distance compared to the ground flown over. Second patent, quite as revolutionary, the goniograph: it acts of an apparatus which allows geometrical layouts with precise measurement of the angles. Untiring worker, it is able to deposit another patent: a system repeater of readers of detecting instruments or measurement. Saint-Exupéry did not finish astonishing.

New York, July 14 1938

If Jules Verne could dream to make the turn of the world in 80 days, Howard Hugues achieved this exploit in three days. An extraordinary adventure that this impassioned speed and four members of crew carried out in the long term. The billionaire had provided Lockheed Model 14 Electra with the most modern equipment communication navigation. He had put in the assistances of the plane 40 kg of table tennis ball, so that he floats in the event of ditching. The odd Hugues does not make the things with half: he had installed in New York a center of meteorology which received and transmitted to Lockheed the information come from the places by which he passed, Europe, the Pacific and the West coast of the United States. But Hugues is also a businessman advised: its arrival coincided with the world fair of New York. It had baptized besides its apparatus < I > New York World' S Fair. As much to say that it did not expect to be alone on the track of Floyd Bennett Field. 25 000 people came to acclaim, as it should be, this record speed for a turn of the world. In three days 19 hours and 24 minutes, Hugues made his entry in the history.

Poland, September 1 1939

It is only this afternoon that Luftwaffe could launch massive raids on Poland. A thick fog had prevented the exits of the morning. 30 massive attacks were launched on strategic objectives, including 8 by 219 Stuka. Covered by with Bf 109, the observation aircrafts Hs 126 initially located the enemy concentrations. Prevented by radio, Ju 87 intervened. All howling sirens, the planes have piqué on their targets, released their bombs and mitraillé the troops on the ground. In many places, the violence of the shock was such as the Polish soldiers did not highest offerer resistance vis-a-vis to Panzer.

the United States, May 13 1940

to rise in the air with the vertical, to float on a precise point then to go down again to be posed with the desired site: a dream which up to now could not have been carried out in a convincing way. The progress of the techniques made it possible Igor Sikorsky to imagine a new helicopter, the VS-300. For the first time, its funny of small machine held in the air more than 15 minutes, delivered cords which maintained it to avoid the yaws.

London, August 15 1940

the plan of invasion of Great Britain by Hitler depends on the capacity of Luftwaffe to control the sky of the English Channel and the East coast of England. The Germans launched today their greater offensive against the RAF, with a series of raids on the grounds and the radar tracking stations of the country. They attack overall, of Scotland at the coast of Kent and Sussex, to oblige the RAF to fight on a very wide face 10. Goering is sure that they is the crews more aguerris - they did not undergo any defeat to date will not make that a mouthful of the hundreds of English hunters which will cross their road. The tactics of the German staff are to bombard the grounds of Fighter Command while Messerschmitt Bf 109 abbateront Spitfire and Hurricane of the RAF. Whereas grounds as Manston underwent a terrible ramming, causing heavy losses, Luftwaffe was attacked by emerged planes of other bases, with such a bravery that the English countryside is strewn with remains of German planes. The good use of the radar, a tactical center managed good, the quality of the men and apparatuses of the RAF transformed the dream of Goering into bloody nightmare.

Cranwell, May 15 1941

Frank Whittle won its bet. Its engine propelled a plane during 17 minutes. Since 1936, it had succeeded, in spite of enormous financial difficulties, founded Power Jets Ltd., intended to develop a reaction engine which it itself had carried out: Gyrone. In 1937, in Ladywood, the machine is ready to function: the compressor goes up up to 8000 tr/min. The witnesses still remember panic in front of the weapon which seems ready to explode. Finally, the tests are satisfactory and the ministry for the Air requires of Whittle to equip a plane with Gyrone. Gloster becomes thus the first British jet. It took off of Cranwell with, to the orders, Gerry Sayer, which launched the engines up to 16 000 tr/min. Frank Whittle saw its four years of research finally crowned with success.

Hawaii, December 7 1941

"air Raids on Pearl Harbor. It is not a exercise." It is 7. 58 of the morning in Hawaii. While the rear-admiral Bellinger, of the tower of control of Ford Island, lance its message, the Japanese bombers crush under the bombs the American fleet of the Pacific. The planes of the commander Mitsuo Fuchida had been detected indeed by the radar of Opana, but the center of control had confused them with of Flying Fortress until one waited this morning. Also, when at 7 a.m. the 49 183 apparatuses of the first wave arrive above the roads, the sky is empty. The effect of surprise is total and, before even as the first bombs fall, Fuchida launches the signal "Tora, will tora, tora!" (Tiger, tiger, tiger!) with the admiral Nagumo, the commander of the naval force of attack. At 7 a.m. 56, the Japanese bombers unchain a hot fire on the warships. The Japanese pilots know the plan of the base by heart. While the Zero hunters and the bombers in piqué Aichi D3A1 Val disperse in sections to bombard and mitrailler the aerodromes of Wheeler, Kaneohe, Ewa and Hickham, the planes destroyers Nakajima B5N2 Kate take their course of approach, then go down to be placed in position of shooting by through battleships. In a few minutes, five ships, Oklahoma, Nevada, Arizona, West Virginia and the california, are broken by the torpedes of 800 kg of Kate. Touched to port side, Oklahoma is turned over, absorbing 400 sailors. In the fifteen minutes which follow, Arizona explodes, its machines and the ammunition store was touched. Moored at the head of file, the california will be the last battleship to be reached. Two torpedes penetrate under the footbridge. The crew prevents it from capsizing but cannot prevent that it is inserted slowly in water of the port. At 8 a.m. 40 one second wave of 86 Valley, 54 Kate and 36 Zero hunters, approaches Oahu by the east. Some rare Curtiss P-40 take off of the track of Wheeler. They will destroy 11 enemy planes. The lieutenant commander Shimazaki, which directs the action, travels by for target the Nevada battleship, which finally succeeded in setting sail under the acclamations of the crew of Oklahoma. At 10 a.m. all is finished: the American naval power is reduced for long month. One will count 2403 dead and 1178 wounded American side; 18 ships are sunk or seriously damaged, including eight battleships. Aviation lost 347 apparatuses. The Japanese record as for them only ridiculous losses: 29 planes and five pocket submarines.

Soviet Union, January 21 1942

Kuznetsov is a lieutenant, he does not have which 23 years. It took off for a mission in Shtourmovik and it has just returned in Messerschmitt Bf 109! Whereas a keen combat opposed its team-members to the German hunters, it saw the majority of its friends falling in flames. Shocks shake its plane, a thick smoke fills the cockpit, it is touched, the plane burns. It has just time to be posed and flee to hide in the coppices to avoid the explosion. A noise of engine above him. Messerschmitt lands in its turn with a few tens of meters. Arm with the fist, the German pilot moves towards the carcass on fire of Shtourmovik under the médusé eye of the young lieutenant. Whereas that which cut down it continues its inspection, it runs, change in Messerschmitt and flies away towards its base.

the United States, May 12 1944

New record of transcontinental crossing. Started from Inglewood, to California, a hunter Mustang P-51 was posed on the ground of Guardia after a six hours crossing 31 minutes and 30 seconds. Its pilot, colonel Clair Peterson, of Army Air Force, thus improves 49 minutes the record speed established in the single-engined aircraft on a transcontinental flight, which was held by Howard Hugues. Seven minutes after Peterson is also posed Mustang P-51 de Jack casing left him Inglewood, but one minute later. These hunters are been driven by a Merlin engine of 1680 CH built under licence in the United States by Packard. Moreover, at the time of the flight, the weight of these apparatuses equalized that of a plane which leaves to the combat.

Nagasaki, August 9 1945

the raid which have just carried out two B-29 will remain marked in the history of humanity. 6 August, controlled by colonel Paul Tibbets, B-29 baptized Enola Gay of the 97e To bend Group, takes off of the Tinian island, in Mariannes. Time is perfect. They are 12 members of crew, photographed before the departure. Two other B-29 form part of the voyage. The first will film the explosion, the second will make scientific statements. On board Enola Gay there is not that a bomb but it is a superbombe: Little Boy. It was armed during the vol. At 8 a.m. 15 minutes and 17 seconds, standard time, the bomber, to 9600 m of altitude above Hiroshima, the terrible machine releases. It transfers immediately on the right to deviate. After the explosion, the assessment is dramatic: 80 000 died and a destruction of the city to 60 %. In the world, amazement makes place with consternation. Japan does not seem therefore ready to yield. August 9, it is with the turn of B-29 Bock' S Car to make its entry in the history. Controlled by major Sweeney, the similar door the second bomb: Conceited person Man. The too thick clouds save the town of Kokura. Nagasaki is destroyed à.70.% and one raises 40 000 dead of the debris.

Toussus-the-Noble, June 6 1946

experimental Flight today for the Belphégor, Johnny Burtin, the test pilot of the national company of aeronautical engineerings of the Center, old Farman factories, took off this morning of Toussus-the-Noble. The NC 3021 is a single-engined aircraft of 10 000 kg. Its enormous four-bladed propeller is pulled by an engine Daimler-Benz dB 610, of a power of 3000 CH. The apparatus was designed to be used as laboratory of exploration of stratosphere. It can reach an altitude of 12 800 m and is equipped with a cabin pressurized for five people. It is planned for a crew of three members accompanied by two engineers of research. The Belphégor has the role of analyzing the problems arising from altitude: pressurization, its variations as well as the sealing of the cabin. It must also study the problems arising from the engine supply to explosion with very high altitudes.

Muroc Dry Lake, December 9 1946

Bell XS-1 is the rocket of research of the USAAF. Released of B-29, it achieved successfully a second autonomous flight motorized above the base of test of California. The XS-1 is built by Bell: the project is financed by the USAAF and of government through the National Advisory Commitee for Aeronautic (NACA). Conceived to fly at very high altitude, the XS-1 was to carry out the tests speed which will make it possible to cross the wall of the sound. According to the temperature and atmospheric pressure, the speed of sound, Mach 1, is of approximately 1050 km/h. The first test was carried out on January 19. Since, surfaces of the wings and elevator were reduced. Bell XS-1 should soon be able to carry out the historical flight.

Muroc Dry Lake, August 25 1947

New record speed in high altitude at the base of the US Air Force in California. Major Marion Carl, of the body of the navy, reached Mach 0,99 (1047,356 km/h) on board D-558 Skystreak, called the Crimson Test Tube because of his scarlet fuselage.

Muroc Dry Lake, October 14 1947

the wall of the sound did not stop it. Charles Yaeger made a success of what one believed dangerous, even impossible. At 10 a.m. 30, by producing a bang as envisaged, X-1 crossed the mysterious barrier of a territory up to that point inviolate. Remarkable exploit which one owes with the apparatus as with the man. At 10 a.m., Yaeger settles with the orders of Bell X-1 baptized, in homage to his wife, Glamorous Glennis. The sky of the desert, beautiful but icy, announces a beautiful day. All is perfect, except the two coasts that Chuck broke this night at the time of a clandestine flight! But no one does not know it. Released carefully to 6000 m by its carrier aircraft B-29, X-1, propelled by two rockets, reached the attitude of test of 12 000 m. The last rocket ignites. A few seconds later, without another indication that that which its dial gives him, Yaeger understands that it enters the legend: it switches stopped at Mach 1,06 (1127 km/h)! There was this time neither shock nor modification of the behavior of the orders. X-1 crossed then to exceed the shock wave created by the compression of molecular of air at this speed. The world of the supersonic flights opens with humanity.

the United States, January 29 1948

Before the war, Theodore Hall, engineer at Consolidated Vultee (Convair), thought already of the flying car. Since 1945, it develops its idea. It then draws a car with two seats, been driven by a Crosley engine of 26 CH and provided with detachable. Then a new model been driven by a Franklin engine of 90 CH appears. Completed in June 1946, the flying car achieves a first trial flight on July 12. After which model 118 comes, more sophisticated. Its first flight, last 15 November, badly misses finishing. With fuel end, the apparatus was posed in catastrophe, the car was destroyed and one of the pilots wounded. The last model, that Hall made fly today, is Convair 118. The engine is even more powerful. It chose Lycoming which actuates a tractive three-bladed propeller Sensenich.

Strong Worth, 2 Mars 1949

B-50 "Lucky Lady" makes the turn of the world without stopover. It had left from here February 26 and has just returned after having achieved the turn of the world without being posed. Equipped with the system of in-flight refueling, it took again the fuel above the Azores, the Philippines and around Hawaii. It was each time a KB-29 which was with go with the fuel necessary to rejoin the following stage. It traversed 37 189 km in 94 hours and a minute. To supplement the exercise, it released with half of the way of the factitious bombs, their tonnage was not communicated.

Toulouse, April 30 1950

Whereas the Hurricane of Marcel Dassault continues his flights in the flight test centre of Brétigny, a large corpulent plane flew for the first time to Toulouse. Engineer Pierre Satre did not draw a beautiful plane, but it has the merit to have wanted to innovate. It is Pierre Nadot who took the orders of this single-seater whose name is Grognard is reference SE-2410-01. It leaves the workshops of the SNCASE. This combat apparatus is twin-jet aircrafts, the two engines being placed, like all the armament in the fuselage. This explains the particular shape of the plane. The air intake is placed above the cockpit which is him integrated in the profit of the apparatus. The sweptback wings are very thin and the horizontal drift postpones is located all in bottom of the fuselage. It would have flown earlier without the problems of tires met during rolling tests. To the return of the flight, Pierre Nadot announced very serious vibrations which occur at the speed of Mach 0.53. A new delay for this plane.

Baltimore, February 21 1951

Teddy Peter was an engineer at Westland Aircraft. It did not give up aeronautics by leaving this manufacturer since it started to study for his account the project of a twin-jet aircraft bomber as a notebook of specifications of the ministry for the aeronautical production required it. Its project interested English Electric which engaged it as chief engineer. May 13, 1949, its prototype flew for the first time. With two engines Rolls-Royce Nene and wings which take as a starting point those of Gloster Meteor, the plane made strong impression. Two other prototypes were put in production. Equipped with Avon engines, always with Rolls-Royce, it has just crossed the North Atlantic of a draft.

Edwards AFB, July 27 1951

This time, the green light is given to vary the geometry of the wing in flight. The first tests, which began on June 20, were limited to flights of control, the wings being in the advanced position, i.e. that which corresponds at the low speeds. This prototype is not an American invention. It is true spoils of war since it is the reproduction of the principle imagined by engineers de Messerschmitt. In 1945, the Americans had discovered, in Oberamergau, Messerschmitt P-1101 with wings with variable geometry. They brought back the plane to the United States and entrusted to Robert Woods, chief engineer of Bell, the continuation of research. The wing with variable angle can solve the problems currently encountered by the technicians. To right angle, it is limited of speed because of the phenomenon of compression which is created with the front one. In the shape of arrow, it is not rather any more carrying at the low speeds. It is a mechanism in the fuselage which while advancing or moving back varied the angle of the wings. There are three possible positions. The plane is equipped with an engine Allison and it reaches 1050 km/h.

Prestwick, July 31 1952

the made uses by the American army of this helicopter are known of the public thanks to films of current events. One does not count any more the missions of rescue and evacuation. He has just established a world record of distance in the helicopter. Two Sikorsky H-19, or S-55 in the nomenclature of the firm, crossed a part of the Atlantic from Iceland to Scotland. In three years, S-55 forged an excellent reputation. The problems of centering were eliminated thanks to a new provision of the elements. Its engine is placed at before and its tank under the floor. The cockpit is located above the cabin at sliding door. Its weight on takeoff is 3625 kg. 11 hours were enough for him to cross the 1480 km above the Atlantic.

France, September 14 1953

a name was born in fire from the action. Last 17 May, an air meeting brought together 50 000 spectators in Algiers White House. The third squadron of hunting of Rheims, directed by the commander Delachenal, shows all its talent. The commentator, fascinated by this spectacle, speaks then about the patrol of France. Soon, name becomes a patronym. The precursor of the stunt-flying is Adolphe Pégoud, since 1913. In 1931, the stunt-flying is prohibited for reasons of safety. Then is born the training school from Stamps which, dissolved in 1937, is transferred to Living room-of-Provence where it becomes the patrol of the flying school. In 1946, it is the patrol of Turns, dissolved in 1947. Lastly, three patrols of three planes are made up, they gather former fighter pilot of the last war.

International, November 2 1954

the v.t.o.l (plane on takeoff and landing with the vertical) seems an impossible goal. The concept of such a plane, usable to fine soldiers or civil, without need for track, is interesting. Its realization is less easy. In testify the difficulties encountered by the two hunters based on these principles and intended for US Navy. Better succeeded than its rival Lockheed XFV-1 Salmon, which hardly tore off ground on June 16, but equipped with the same engine Allison XT40 of 7100 CH, Convair XFY-1 Pogo is the first v.t.o.l to have taken off on August 1. It certainly has just made a success of its first translation of the hovering to the level flight, but the operation remains very delicate. Deviating from the American option which seems in the dead end, the engineers of Rolls-Royce developed a machine which rises by keeping its horizontal fuselage. It is Thrust Measuring Rig, or Lit-cage volant. It is propelled by two Nene engines and is equipped with tubes of stabilization. During its first coasting flight, August 9, it appeared very stable.

Toulouse-Blagnac, May 27 1955

the Caravel takes the air in the sky of Toulouse. It is one Friday, it is 19. 30 when Pierre Nadot pushes the engines of the Caravel with full power. It always has the feet on the brakes, immobilizing the apparatus which only requires to leap. A glance towards Andre Moynet, his copilot: all the parameters are good. It releases the pressure on the pedal and the track starts to ravel. The airspeed indicator climbs and Moynet shells speeds aloud. With 120 nodes (223 km/h) Pierre Nadot draws on the handle. The nose rises and the Caravel springs towards the sky of Toulouse, course in the south On board, it is a feeling of great pride. There is Jean April, flight engineer; André Préneron is the radio operator operator while Roger Beteille accompanies them as engineer responsible for the tests. Since the morning, one felt that something would occur today. The tests on the ground followed one another during two weeks, the personnel of the airport had been accustomed to see leaving this splendid plane the hangar of the flight test centre of the SNCASE. On the ground, the anguish made place with the relief. George Hereil admires the result of the work of all his team. This beautiful plane which evolves/moves is the fourth civil apparatus with reaction of the world. It is the first time that the engines are positioned with the back of the fuselage. The flight will last 41 minutes, the train and the shutters will remain left as envisaged. The catch of track was perfect, the plane returns towards the hangar. It is 8 p.m. 15 and the champagne will run with floods.

Melun-Villaroche, June 25 1955

the staff wanted a plane able to fly at Mach 2 and to climb to 18 000 m in four minutes to intercept the bombers. The SNCASO proposed the Trident equipped with two small engines and a powerful rocket. The SNCASE, it, makes the reverse with Durandal, which has a powerful engine assisted by a small rocket. The response of Dassault, in fact the MD-550 has just taken off of Melun, controlled by Roland Glavany. The plane is called Mirage, because Marcel Dassault thinks that the enemy will see it without never hearing it. He is equipped with a rocket of average power and two Viper engines. These engines are built under licence by Dassault. The Mirage will astonish the Americans as it was already the case with the Mystery. At Dassault, the priority it is the poids/puissance report/ratio. In the United States, even comfort is taken into account, and the cockpit of the hunters is air-conditioned.

Wiesbaden, July 4 1956

U-2 begins its career of spy above the USSR. Code name of the apparatuses: Aquatone. Mission: to fly over the USSR, in this period of cold war, in order to photograph all what will appear useful for the American soldiers and the CIA. Thus very first U-2 carried out their first mission of espionage, baptized Overflight. Started from Wiesbaden, where a secret base was installed, the pilots of the US Air Force achieved their role with brilliance. U-2 were built by Lockheed. The apparatus is appeared as a 15 m long fuselage with a span of the wings of 24,38 Mr. His wings thus enable him to plane a long time, engines stopped to cancel any thermal signature of its conduits. It can reach the altitude of 21 000 m. The cabin is located in advanced position. The canopy of cockpit is provided with a screen in the shape of cap to protect the pilots from the ultraviolet rays. In the compartment, the engineers placed the cameras and the recorders with high sensitivity.

Edwards AFB, September 27 1956

It was the third mission of the X-2 program. It will have been fatal to the Apt captain. The experimental prototype Bell X-2 was crushed close to the base of Edwards. The body of the pilot was found beside the cockpit: undoubtedly A-you it have time to actuate its ejector seat. There Apt accomplished its first flight on an apparatus of type X after a drive on the ground on computer. It will not have less beaten of it during this flight a world record speed: Mach 3,196 is 3369 km/h! It held already the record of altitude with 37 772 Mr. Conçu for the study of the effects associated at the highly supersonic speeds, X-2 seem to have escaped with the orders of the pilot.

Melun-Villaroche, November 17 1956

It is 16 hours and the weather is cold when Lucien Martin made leave the prototype Mirage III of its hangar. The plane is superb with its size of wasp and its delta wing. Dassault built without any governmental subsidy. It is its plane, and it knows that it will become a hunter adopted by several Air Forces. All the team, animated of the same desire of success, worked without slackening. At Dassault, there is little leave. The plane is built around the engine Atar 101G which has a push of 4500 kg. This famous engine is also a history. Just after the war, the French could convince Hermann Oestrich to work for them. This expert came straight of the department from research of BMW. To withdraw it to the Germans, they installed it, with its team, initially in Rickenbach then with Decize, around Nevers. The SNECMA absorbed this team. Glavany launches engine, the Mirage sinks and with 295 km/h it makes it take off. It returns the train and lets the plane slip by up to 700 km/h. The test of the air-brakes is perfect. Opinion that the trap door of train is not completely closed, Glavany returns to be posed.

Soviet Union, July 14 1959

Advantage in the Soviet Union: the world record of altitude has just changed camp. The exploit returns from there in major Iliouchine, wire of the famous engineer. Its apparatus, Sukhoi T-431, burst the ceiling of the preceding record with 28 850 m. It acts of a prototype of Known-9 the Sukhoi hunter, which entered recently in service the regular minutes Strany, the force of air defense. The record belonged up to that point to Lockheed Starfighter of major Johnson, who itself had on charmed it with the French May 7, 1958 by reaching 27 811 m.

Soviet Union, May 1 1960

For two years, the Americans have flown over Soviet Union in all impunity. Never Soviet managed to intercept them. As, it is with confidence as the pilot Francis Gary Powers, civil servant of the CIA, take off of Peshawar, in Pakistan, with the orders of his Lockheed U-2B to carry out the registered mission 4154. Its plane does not carry obviously any number nor distinctive sign. It must fly over the Soviet Union from beginning to end at very high altitude by taking photographs of certain objectives. Above the Ural, a first incident occurs: the autopilot the coward. He will have to remain with the orders until the end of his mission. But, while an aerodrome in the south-east of Sverdlosk flies over them, an explosion shakes the plane. A missile SA-2, drawn from the ground, has just reached it. The orders do not answer any more. Pieces of wing are detached and the apparatus goes into a tailspin. Powers starts the device of self-destruction of the plane before being ejected. Then it is the jump in free fall until its parachute opens automatically. On the ground, it does not have any more but to await the arrival of Soviet who will capture it.

Soviet Union, April 12 1961

Gagarine first pilot in space. The amazing news from Moscow made the turn of the world in a few seconds: Soviet became the first man with being placed in orbit. In the United States, it is consternation, whereas in the very whole USSR the field of triumph in the honor of the new hero bursts, Youri Alexéievitch Gagarine. Installed on board his enormous space capsule Vostock, which weighs 4725 kg, the cosmonaut was propelled in the sky at an altitude of 280 km by a rocket on three floors. Evolving/moving at a speed of 28 000 km/h, Gagarine made an orbit in 108 minutes before returning healthy and except, in its cabin suspended with a parachute.

Nevada, April 26 1962

"secret Signal": the instruction of the Pentagon is formal. The absolute secrecy with cover first flight of the astonishing strategic reconnaissance aircraft American, Lockheed A-12. So much so that it is of night that the apparatus was transported by the road to an almost unused airfield in Indian Springs, in Nevada. There, Louis Schalk took the orders of this apparatus trisonic, built almost entirely out of titanium alloy Beta B-120. Lockheed calculated that at Mach 3 the coefficient of heating would be at least 565 °C on the level of the conduits. A-12 or Blackbird is intended to be an invulnerable substitute of the U-2 spy plane.

California, July 17 1962

the limit between the plane and the rocket becomes increasingly thin. North American X-15 has just made the demonstration of it by reaching the record attitude of 96 000 Mr. Because it does not act any more maintaining of a simple stratospheric flight: the field of the space flights was practically reached. An exploit which is worth with its pilot, the commander Robert White, to receive the "wings" of the astronauts, to have ventured in a field which was not it his. Thus, this research program which had so much difficulty to start, since much did not see, 10 years ago, utility of hypersonic flights and at high altitudes, it is becoming one of most spectacular and most promising ever undertaken by the NACA and NASA. Since August 1960, the records of altitude and speeds practically fell to each mission. Knowledge which will result from it is priceless.

Atlantic Ocean, February 15 1964

the enigma of the Bermuda Triangle. Without the journalist Vincent Gaddis, nobody would never have intended to speak about the Bermuda Triangle. It is the first to use this term to locate this mysterious sector, between the coast of Florida, the Bahamas and Haiti. A perhaps supernatural place, in any case dangerous, where strange disappearances were announced since 1945 until today. There are however explanations more concrete than all those imagined by much. For example, this sector is famous for its frequent changes of times, which can surprise best pilots. Moreover, the sea is traversed by enough fast currents to make disappear very quickly from the wrecks. It is also known that the gravitational and magnetic activity of the place is unusual. Without speaking about the tropical storms about a great violence and electric interferences which disturb the instruments and, consequently, the pilot.

Edwards AFB, May 1 1965

F-104 de Lockheed gave a secret version, A-12. This one was also modified according to special appropriations to give three prototypes YF-12A. First received number 60-6934, it stole on August 7, 1963 for the first time. The day badly started: this morning, the engine did not function. The last two specimens took off leaving behind them only two immense tongues of fire. They left to take down all the records. Record of absolute altitude with 24 465 m, record absolute velocity in closed loop of 25 km with 3331,51 km/h.

London, September 11 1965

Fifty-fifty: king Solomon will have made followers among the European airframe manufacturers! The principle of a perfectly equitable distribution of the tasks is in the heart even of the Franco-British agreement on the Concorde project signed in November 1962. Four large aeronautical companies, two Frenchwomen and two British, were in charge of the execution of the project. Under the terms of agreements concluded since 1961 between these companies and confirmed by the two governments, the development of the supersonic future in fact was divided into two: the cell and the propulsion group. Approximately, that means that the parts before (whose cockpit) and back of the fuselage, nacelles and air intake of the engines and the drifts and control surfaces were entrusted to British Aircraft Corporation. South-aviation will carry out the central part of the fuselage, the wings and the gear landing. As for the engines Olympus 593, the SNECMA and in charge of the very complex system of exhaust nozzle whereas the compressors and the turbines were entrusted to Bristol Siddeley. The direction itself of the Concorde program is ensured by a committee responsible whose direction is entrusted alternatively, for one period two years, in France and Great Britain. The principle of equal division was even applied to the manufacture and study plans, sides in metric measurements and Anglo-Saxon measurements. What does not seem to obstruct the engineers.

California, June 8 1966

the XB-70A Valkyrie, the most beautiful American bomber, whose program had asked for 10 years of study, had flown away for an advertising film with two planes mentor, T-38 and F-104. With four other combat jets, it was to carry out a formation out of arrow for the needs for General Electric. Suddenly, for a reason remained unknown, F-104 effleure the XB-70, then strikes it. Under the shock, F-104 explodes, killing the pilot Joe Walker. The XB-70 starts in its turn brutal piqué. The two pilots, Al White and Carl Cross-country race, try to eject themselves, but the centrifugal force of the apparatus prevents any movement. To force of efforts, White manages to eject himself at the last minute. One will find in the wreck of the giant bomber the body of Cross-country race always attached to his seat. It is a stupid accident for a simple publicity.

Istres, November 30 1967

Dassault already had the honor to be the first manufacturer to design a plane on vertical takeoff which makes a success of the performance to take off on the spot for then flying at more Mach 2. He becomes also the first European manufacturer developed a variable-geometry aircraft which, in less than two weeks, made a success of its tests of variation of geometry of the wing in flight to reach the speed of Mach 2.1. It was only the 11th flight of the Mirage G. The first had taken place on November 18 with Jean Coureau with the orders. Remaining with the spread wings with 25°, it had simply made climb the machine with 10 000 feet to return to be posed in Istres. With its 18 T, the Mirage G has a speed of approach in threshold of track of 350 km/h. Since, the flights followed one another without problem with variation of the arrow. A skittle under the tail was added to make the plane stable at the transonic speeds.

Soviet Union, December 31 1968

Soviet have what to be proud. Tupolev You-144, baptized Concordskii in the west, became the first supersonic transport aircraft took off, for a 38 minutes flight at subsonic speed. The USSR thus beat speed the Harmony European. The leaders of the Kremlin knew that the initial flight of the Harmony was planned for the end next February and they absolutely made a point of being the first. In spite of the reserves issued by the person in charge for the project, Alekseï Tupolev, the two test pilots, Édouard Elyan and Mikhaïl Kozlov, took the orders of You-144 this morning. The weather was bad and of the planes had to sow the money iodide clouds to precipitate them. At first sight, You-144, equipped with four turbojets Kouznetsov NK-144, and the Harmony resemble itself much. They have the same ogival wings, the same frayed fuselage and the same lowerable nasal point. The KGB indeed was interested closely, since 1961, with the Concorde project. In spite of this resemblance, You-144, to which the announced performances are close to those of the Harmony, and of higher size although its payload is slightly lower (120 passengers, is 10 less than the Harmony). Contrary to the Harmony, its coating comprises approximately 20 % of titanium.

the United States, December 31 1968

It is necessary to have steel nerves and great experience to carry out a flight trisonic, that is to say at speeds higher than 3600 km/h is with more than 26 000 m of altitude. A wrong movement, one moment of carelessness and it is the catastrophe. Since January 1966, the US Air Force lost at least five planes Lockheed A-12, YF-12 or SR-71 Blackbird during tests at very high speed and high altitude. Among the problems arising at the time of such flights, there is the heating: at Mach 3, the temperature passes very close to the 400 °C on the level of the covering of the fuselage, which can dilate even titanium. The flight at such speeds in the high layers of the atmosphere subjects also the plane to phenomena such as the starting of shock waves, the increase in the coefficient of drag and the reduction of the coefficient of bearing pressure. At Mach 3, there is no question of controlling manually.

Seattle, February 9 1969

the commercial aviation has just entered a new era, that of the transport of mass. Finished the exiguous planes able to carry 100 or 200 passengers to the maximum. The Western world seems to have the fidgets: everyone wants to travel by plane. Only one way of satisfying this request: to build the most gigantic civil apparatus ever developped at the point. 10 years after the launching from famous the 707, Boeing inaugurated the 747, a so enormous apparatus which can almost be described as flying steamer. First 747, or Jumbo Jet, controlled by Waddel Jack, took off this morning for the first time of the ground of Paine, close to Seattle, after having rolled only on 1370 Mr. On his board, the engineers placed more than 25 T of recording and measuring instruments. On the ground, the spectators do not believe their eyes of them; at the Jumbo, all is to be declined with superlative: its weight (more than 315 T), its capacity (approximately 400 passengers or 50 T of freight), its cost (nearly 20 million dollars in its initial version) and its fuel capacity (178 T, are about as far as the mass of a Boeing 707 with full load). In cruising, it consumes 12 T of fuel per hour. Intended to enter in service with Side Am at the end of the year, the Jumbo promises to revolutionize air transport. It also will oblige the persons in charge for the airports to reorganize their infrastructures to avoid a clogging at the time of the simultaneous arrival several 747, each one transporting its 400 passengers.

San Diego, 1 Mars 1969

official Name: US Navy Postgraduate Race in Fighter Weapons, Tactics and Doctrines. Another denomination: Signal Gun, in other words the nec more ultra in the aerial combat. Localization: base of Miramar, in the North-West of San Diego. Characteristics: air and sea school exempting to the fighter pilots a drive under conditions as close as possible to reality. Specialities: creation of a fleet of apparatuses able to simulate the adversary, particularly Mig Soviet, potential enemies n°1. Objective: to regild the blazon of American hunting tarnished in Vietnam and to become the most powerful school in the world. Frank W Ault is in charge of this task.

Toulouse, 2 Mars 1969

the eyes of the whole world are turned on the airport of Toulouse-Blagnac. After a delay of several days of the bad weather, Harmony 001 is on the point of flying for the first time. Hundreds of journalists and thousands of curious applauded the crew: Andre Turcat, commander, Jacques Unlucky, copilot, Michel Restive, mechanic, and Henri Perrier, engineer. Turcat starts the engines, but the countdown is stopped following a minor incident. Whereas the defective part was changed, two twin-jet aircrafts take off: one will film the flight of supersonic, the other will control the speeds indicated on board Harmony. At 3 p.m. 40 minutes 11 seconds, Turcat releases the brakes and Concorde, all lit reheatings, takes off. The plane, follow-up on line by television, carries out a broad circuit at low altitude and low speed. The landing gear remains left. The crew announces some breakdowns of instruments without gravity. Turcat poses the apparatus in front of the enthusiastic spectators, at 4 p.m. 08 minutes. With its descent of plane, it declares with a broad smile: "the large bird flight..."

Filton, April 9 1969

Five weeks after its elder French, Harmony 002, registered G-BSST, finally took its take-off. The British prototype is with the hands of Brian Trubshaw, chief test pilot of British Aircraft Corp. It is assisted by John Cochrane, the copilot, and by Brian Watts, the flight engineer. Like last month in Toulouse, thousands of people came to attend the historical flight. At the proper time, Trubshaw pushes à.fond the levers and all the power of the four engines is released. The heavy apparatus springs on the track and its nose starts to buck. When the angle of attack reached 10°, with a relative speed of 205 nodes, the wheels leave the ground. A long ovation greets takeoff. The plane moves then towards the military aerodrome of Fairford, to 80 km of Filton, where new tests will proceed. Suddenly, the crew announces that the two radioaltimeters of the 002 are broken down. It is worrying, because when the principal train touches the track, the cockpit will be always to 11 m above ground-level. In spite of this incident, Trubshaw succeeds in posing the Harmony.

the United States, May 25 1971

It is finished. Nearly eight years after president Kennedy launched the program of supersonic aircraft, the SST, the project come to be buried, perhaps for always. Among partisans of the SST, as in the superintendents of project, Boeing for the cell and General Electric for the engines, it is consternation. Program SST was in fact dying man since last 27 March, dates to which the Senate confirmed by 51 votes against 26 the decision of the Room of the representatives to refuse to allocate additional appropriations with research on the SST. It remained with the defenders of the project only one negligible hope to save the supersonic one, but Boeing, preferring to limit the damage, declared fixed price.

Edwards AFB, July 27 1972

When it posed the prototype of the F-15 Eagle on the track of the air base of Edwards, in California, Irving Burrows, the test pilot, had the smile. In 50 minutes of flight, with the orders of the new plane of air superiority theDouglas one, Burrows understood that it had to make with a thoroughbred airs. The F-15, intended to replace gradually F-4 Phantom within the US Air Force, is a single-seater with fixed geometry equipped with two afterburning and dual flow jet engines Pratt & Whitney. In spite of its relatively high weight (18 T), this apparatus, capable of a maximum speed of Mach 2,5, is the first hunter to be had a thrust/weight ratio higher than 1, which enables him to accelerate more quickly than any other hunter.

Strong Worth, February 2 1974

the first flight of F-16, the Fighting Falcon of General Dynamics, lasted 90 minutes, it was held without problem. It will have been necessary less than two years to design this apparatus, which enters the competition of the new light hunter required by the US Air Force. The war of Vietnam completely modified the American strategy. Finished the heavy and not very handy planes which do not manage to come to end from the Mig one. The last fixings in Israel confirmed the value of the new theories. F-16 will have to be measured with the YF-17 of Northrop, which should fly soon. F-16 is a single-seat single engine of 16 T maximum mass on takeoff. It weighs only 7 tons with vacuum. It has a very particular form with a large ventral air intake and a careenage with the connection of the wing with the fuselage. The seat of the pilot is tilted towards the back with 30°.

Federal German Republic, August 14 1974

Fruit of a remarkable co-operation between three European countries, the fighter multirôle Tornado, which has just accomplished its inaugural flight, is a challenge with the American technological superiority. It is as the proof as while cooperating, Europeans are able to produce a plane as effective as those carried out in the USA. Built by FRG, the United Kingdom and Italy to meet the needs for their air forces, Tornado, very general-purpose plane, is equipped with two Rolls-Royce engines and wings with variable geometry getting an excellent handiness. Fighter equipped with orders of electric flight (like American F-16), Tornado will be able to carry air-to-ground loads in service in the RAF, Luftwaffe and the Italian air forces. It is intended to replace growing old Phantom and Starfighter of these three countries. The appearance of Tornado leaves whole the problem of the modernization of the air forces of the European countries having given up taking part in the Tornado project. Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Denmark will have to choose between the F1 Mirage, Swedish Viggen, F-16 and the Franco-British Jaguar.

the United States, December 23 1974

Its mission: to be an invisible shell. The first flight of the prototype Rockwell B-1, American strategic bomber, announces a frightening successor of the B-52. Its effectiveness lies in its character of furtivity: its signatures infra-red and radar are very weak (the latter is equivalent to 1 % of that of a Boeing B-52). Indeed, vis-a-vis with ground-to-air missiles able to reach altitudes of 30 000 m and speeds of Mach 6, the only possible solution for the bombers is to make them undetectable. But B-1 has other master cards: variable geometry, possibility of launching an attack to less than 60 m of altitude and to more than 950 km/h. Its armament (up to 57 000 kg of bombs) traditional or nuclear power makes a bomber of it has general-purpose.

Rio de Janeiro, January 21 1976

"the passengers of the flight Air France 085 are requested to present itself at the door of loading." It is by this message diffused one midday in the satellite number five of the airport Roissy Charles-of-Gaulle that to begin for 100 passengers one the from most formidable adventures from aeronautics. The flight 085, which left Paris for Rio via Dakar at 12 noon 40, is not an ordinary flight: it acts of the first commercial flight of Harmony. Among the passengers, there is an about sixty French, eight American, six Germans, two Spaniards, two Scandinavians, four Italians and Switzerland. The senior is Toulouse 82 years, Aurélie Ouille. To symbolize 13 years of Franco-British co-operation, a Harmony of British Airways flew away at the same time of the airport of London-Heathrow will be able inaugural flight in Bahrain. The commander of flight 085, Pierre Canon, posed his apparatus in Dakar at 15. 27, where the supersonic one was accomodated by president Léopold Sédar Senghor. Then, at 4 p.m. 45, the Harmony took again its flight above the South Atlantic. It is at 8 p.m. 06 (Paris time) that the supersonic one landed with the airport of Rio-Galeao. The Harmony of Air France thus traversed the few 10 000 km which separate Paris and Rio de Janeiro in 7 hours and 26 minutes exactly.

Istres, 10 Mars 1978

the Mirage 2000, last-born child of Dassault, has just accomplished its first flight with Istres. This single engine with delta wing, already qualified better fighter of its generation, is the first French apparatus with being equipped with electric drives. The pilot is not mechanically any more related to the control surfaces: if they are always actuated by hydraulic servos, the muscles of the apparatus; its nerves are electric cables from the computer to which the pilot gives his orders by the intermediary of the handle. Any plane with delta wing suffers from instability in flight, but the electric drives reduce the response time to the orders while increasing the handiness. Other favours, the removal of the power-controls reduces the weight of the apparatus. The test pilot Jean Coureau appreciated: "it is a plane hyperstable: you can all release, it does not leave its line of flight."

Saint-Louis, November 18 1978

the chief controls theDouglas one, Jack E Krings, made take off the first prototype of the YF-18 of the track of the airport of Lambert-Saint-Louis. Escorted by F-4 Phantom and a F-15 Eagle, the flight lasts 50 minutes, during which the fighter-bomber carried out the way Saint-Louis Springfield and return, with the altitude of 7300 m and the speed of 555 km/h. It is on May 2 1975 which Navy, which wants to replace its F-4 Phantom, selected the YF-18, baptized Hornet in homage to the aircraft carrier having borne this name. McDonnell-Douglas and Northrop conceived this joint project. The first obtains the control of work of the program. Northrop is thus nothing any more but a one subcontractor and produces the back of the fuselage. Navy ordered 11 prototypes.

Istres, 9 Mars 1979

Developed in order to compete with with the export of the F-15 and American F-18, Mirage 4000 has just flown for the first time to the hands of Jean-Marie Saget. This twin-jet aircraft, of the same aerodynamic formula as the Mirage 2000, should make it possible France to enter the international market of the twin-jet aircrafts to high performances. Mirage 4000 is a general-purpose fighter, capable of missions of air defenses and air superiority. It can also carry out air-to-ground missions and attacks with very long operating range. For the engineering and design department of the planes Marcel Dassault, it is not only better in air superiority than the F-15, but has in more one operating range higher than that of Mirage IV. It would thus exceed, in two types of missions, the two American planes.

Strong Worth, July 3 1982

General Dynamic develops its own research program on the F-16 hunter. After having rented with the US Air Force two cells of F-16, a turbofan Pratt & Whitney and a two-seater cockpit, it launched out in the construction of two prototypes to the new airfoil, the F-16XL. The difference essential compared to the basic model relates to the wing: the aerofoil out of arrow become giant goes to the tail, increasing the wing surface moreover of the double. Its coating, fact of composites containing graphite, reinforces its rigidity and its robustness. The F-16XL acquires astonishing performances thus: reduction of a third of the landing and takeoff distances, doubly of the load of armament and increase of 82 % of the fuel load. The prototype presented today is the single-seat version of the F-16XL.

Soviet Union, August 22 1982

Code name NATO of Known-27: Flanker. But its pilots call it la Grue. A disgracieux qualifier for this hunter which is undoubtedly the most powerful interceptor in the world. Its development meets the imperative need for Soviet air defense to have an apparatus which can counter the tactics of attack at low altitude of the bombers of the West. Known-27, it is the first flight, has the most sophisticated equipment, in particular of a radar of a range of 240 km for research and 185 km for the continuation. Its basic armament is made of six missiles air air with average carried, which it can carry with 2495 km/h maximum and on 1450 km. But it does not resemble any more that by far Sukhoi T-10, the first prototype discovered by the West since 1977 but of which supersonic stability was insufficient.

Italy, May 15 1984

It is youngest of all European aerospace industries of the post-war period. It is also most dynamic. While choosing to gear down its participation in the foreign programs, the Italian aircraft industry starts a remarkable rectification which also enables him to benefit from this co-operation. The presentation in flight of the first prototype of the AMX in is an example: this attack aircraft was designed to replace Tornado, too heavy and too expensive of Aeronautica Militare Italiana. It is the fruit of a program of development and production carried out jointly by Italy (with AERITALIA and Aermacchi) and Brazil (Embraer). The Brazilian participation is there 29,7 % against 46 and 7 % for AERITALIA and 23,6 % for Aermacchi. The Brazilian prototype should fly in one year.

Edwards AFB, December 14 1984

the configuration of X-29 is completely single: its wings are directed forwards. There NASA starts a new research program to study this type of arrow which involves, during the transonic operations, a trail weaker than that of the traditional configuration. Its wings are out of carbon fibre but, for the remainder, X-29 does not have anything revolutionist: it is built starting from the fuselage of Northrop F-5 and the engines of the F-18. Its instability was desired, in order to check if it were controllable, which would confer a remarkable maneuverability to him. Chuck Sewell controlled X-29 for its first flight.

North Carolina, January 31 1985

the Navy finally took delivery of their first planes of attack on vertical takeoff of second generation, Harrier II. They could thus form their operational first squadron on AV-8B, the VMA-331, stationed in Cherry Point (North Carolina). Regarded as the last word in the single-seat attack aircraft, this apparatus was developed by McDonnell-Douglas and British Aerospace to fill the deficiencies of Harrier of first generation. Harrier of origin posted an insufficient operating range and had a primitive system of navigation. Harrier II takes again what there was the best at its predecessor while combining new techniques of construction and a aerodynamics refined with an ultramodern avionics and a more effective armament. The principal difference of the AV-8B, or Harrier GR. Mk 5 for the RAF, relates to the wings, of quite higher scale (20 %) and of increased surface, which makes it possible the plane to be equipped with additional tanks. The new aerofoil comprises large shutters with slit and composite material ailerons which increase the bearing pressure. The new capacity of maximum carrying is close of the double of that of Harrier of origin.

London, April 15 1986

the United States Air Force attacks the HQ of Kadhafi. The mission decided by president Reagan, after a recent Libyan terrorist attack counters G.I. in Berlin, was an almost total success. On the 41 planes of the US Air Force left yesterday around 18 hours their bases to England, only a F-111F Aardvak did not return. It is the single loss undergone by the US Air Force during a complex mission made by the refusal of Paris and Madrid to authorize the overflight of their territory by the American planes. In order to conclude their raid counters objectives in Libya, the planes left England, 18 F-111F equipped with the system of bombardment per laser Pave Tack, three apparatuses of electronic war EF-111A Raven and 20 flying cisterns KC-135 Stratotanker and KC-10A Extender had to borrow the Bay of Biscay, to skirt the Iberian dimension, then to oblique by Gibraltar before being able to put the course on the Libyan coast. The planes of attack had to supply with flight four times before being able to launch their bombs on Tripoli. For US Navy, the task was less complex. Left aircraft carriers USS America and USS Coral Sea, crossing with broad of Libya, 8 A-6E Intruder and 12 F-18A Hornet rammed the military airport of Benghazi, destroying on the ground at least 4 Mig-23, 2 Semi-8 Mil helicopters and 1 Fokker F-27 of transport. All the apparatuses of Navy landed without incident.

the United States, May 31 1986

He was not only the first man in the world to have crossed the wall of the sound. Chuck Yeager, fighter pilot since 1943, also carried out 64 missions. The memories, which it has just published, prove that this large professional, which adds up 10 000 hours of flight on 180 types of apparatuses, is before a whole man remained very modest.

Istres, July 4 1986

"It will fly well because it is beautiful." This small sentence pronounced by Marcel Dassault, before his death on 18 April last, proved just. The Rafale A, last-born child of the military know-how of the Dassault company, flies well, very well. Guy Mitaux-Maurouard, the test pilot which has just carried out the initial flight of the Rafale, a demonstrator of technologies, is satisfied with the behavior of the apparatus. This true cocktail of advanced techniques, able to fly at Mach 2 and to be posed like a feather in less than 300 m, is equipped with entirely digitized electric drives. A quarter of its structure is made up of new, lighter and more resistant materials. For better boxing accelerations, the pilot occupies a lengthened semi position and has a holographic posting high head. Ultimate refinement, the pilot can dialogue with the plane: it is enough for him to question the computer of edge which provides him with high voice the necessary information.

Strong Bragg, October 1 1986

the servant boys have better moral. If US Army is committed in a European conflict, the tanks of the unfavourable forces will meet opposite them a frightening adversary: Apache AH-64 of Hughes, from which the startup in the American army began. Larger and more powerful than the Cobra used in Vietnam, this killer of tanks is extremely handy, essential quality with the attack of the tanks. The pilots will carry out a 140 hours minimum of flight annual on Apache, in more of the drive on simulator with laser system (the simulator ensures a drive of quality lower cost of both whole while reconstituting the conditions of the missions perfectly). The tactics of flight of Apache are particular. It fights in flight with the strong current of the ground to arrive by surprised on the theatre of the operations. That requires a close co-operation with the scouts OH-58C Kiowa who are the "eyes" of Apache. The pilot training to these tactics of flight and the shooting of the various missiles of Apache take place with Fort Bragg, in North Carolina.

Edwards AFB, December 23 1986

"And if were to be remade?" "It is not question, answers the young woman the journalists, since our objective was to carry out a first." It is done. It was eight hours in California when Jeana Jeager (43 years) and Dick Rutan (46 years) unloaded, exhausted, of a curious albatross to the scale of 727, on the basis of Edwards. Its wings were damaged. The light machine, out of composite materials, has as a name Voyager, and it is the prototype developped at the point by Burt, the brother of Rick and 22 000 working hour old suburbs and after step less than 69 tests. On its board, the two Americans come simultaneously to beat the record of distance, that of distance in closed loop, and that of time of flight. Left with 5500 fuel L distributed in 17 tanks and with 40 water L in large plastic bags like cups, they followed a road a little more to north that that of Ecuador to achieve their turn of the world. Nearly 41 000 km in nine days, at the mean velocity of 150 km/h, without stopover and in-flight refueling. This flight is an exploit in more than one way. In their flying bath-tub of 2 m³, the pilots will have spent 216 hours in the air, sleeping only two hours per day and taking turns with the orders every five hours, in a cockpit so inconvenient that the least movement to slacken their muscles was prohibited to them. They also had to face very bad conditions weather, especially above Africa where turbulences obliged them to fly to more than 6000 m and to carry oxygen masks. Without speaking about the unbearable noise and insects which stuck themselves on the leading edge of the wings, by decreasing the smoothness of the profile, which increased the fuel consumption. Until the last moment, they have fears to miss some. They were mistaken and even offered the luxury to land one day earlier than envisaged with a little reserve.

Bretigny-on-Barley, 31 Mars 1987

the pilots speak with the planes. On board the hunter Mirage III, which has just taken off of Brétigny on Orge, a small block box step larger than a shoe box. Conceived by the Crouzet company, this instrument allows the pilot, in spite of the noise of the cabin, to manage all the simple functions of the plane by orally requiring them of the computer. These vocal orders are not a simple gadget. It will be an invaluable system for the military pilots: at the time of a combat without mercy, it will be enough to ask the plane to arm a missile or to know if it remains enough of fuel, that without leaving the sky of the eyes. Soon, all the planes will be able to answer the voice of their Master.

Washington, November 10 1988

the US Air Force finally raised a corner of veil on its most secret plane. For the first time, a photograph of the furtive plane of attack Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk, deliberately over-exposed and deformed by the recourse to a wide-angle lens, was published. One sees there an astonishing plane, cut like a diamond. It evokes the science fiction, with its color noirâtre and its strange form. Not the least round-off, all its lines end in angles, to the edges of the cockpit, realized in small broken lines to break the rays of the beam radar. The F-117A thus scatters the waves in all the directions instead of returning them towards the transmitter like does it a normal plane. The recourse to composite materials, containing carbon, of silica and resins, enables him to be not electric conductive. Its covered structure of a material containing resins, absorbs a part of the electromagnetic waves. The plane, which costs 650 million franks, is almost invisible with the infra-red detectors: its coating absorbs a maximum of calories and its engines General Electric F404-400 without afterburning release only one very weak thermal signature. According to the Pentagon, 52 F-117A are already operational within the 4450e Tactical Group based in Tonopath, in Nevada. The secrecy being raised, they will be able from now on to steal during the day...

California, July 17 1989

Its fuselage deprived of empennage is hardly longer than that of a F-15 Eagle whereas its scale is as important as that of a B-52 Stratofortress. Contrary to his/her cousin, furtive hunter F-117A, the shapes of the future furtive strategic bomber, B-2 de Northrop whose US Air Force ordered 132 specimens, are all in roundnesses. 500 million dollars, B-2 costs 20 times more chèr that a F-15. It took off for the first time of the ground of Palmdale at 6 a.m. 37 for a trial flight two hours above the Californian desert. The mission of this hang-glider, able to carry 22,7 T of armament, whose nuclear bombs, is the penetration at high altitude (15 000 m) and at low altitude. Propelled by four engines General Electric F118-100, B-2, of an operating range quite higher than the B-52, largely calls upon composite materials.

Edwards AFB, August 27 1990

the battle for a new contract of the century is indeed committed. The winner will be called, as of the end of the Nineties, to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-14 Tomcat of Navy and the US Air Force. The stake is serious since with it only Navy plans to acquire per less than 750 FRA (Advanced Tactical Fighter). The total cost of the program could border the 140 billion dollars, with a hoped unit cost of approximately 40 million dollars. First of the two competitors, the YF-23 of Northrop and McDonnell-Douglas, accomplished today first a one hour flight since the base of Edwards, in the desert of Mojave, preceding few weeks presentation of its rival, the YF-22, of size close to those of the F-15, was designed according to constraints related to the furtivity: round forms, engine nacelles integrated into the aerofoil, drifts notched out of V and air intake under the aerofoil. Like the YF-22, the YF-23 is a single-seater twin-jet aircraft of a mass of approximately 22 T and a maximum speed about Mach 1.5.

California, October 11 1990

X-31 explores the flight at low speed. The aerial combats of the year 2000 will not be gained by the fastest planes, but by most handy, those which will be able to transfer tightest and to box the most load factor. A hunter able to pass in a few seconds from 500 to 100 nodes or less will dominate the thorough-bred of the Mach. The experimental plane X-31 developped at the point by American Rockwell and German MBB has just started in Palmdale its tests of very slow flight with marked angles of incidence. These tests are intended to study the limits of the evolution of a fighter in taken down flight, i.e. below the threshold of bearing pressure. The engine with vectorial push of X-31 plays a paramount part in the control of pitching and the laces to the very high incidences. An integrated numerical system makes it possible to the pilot to direct the flow of push.

January 17 1991

an impact on the canopy, a great shock with the head. The sight of the captain Alain Mahagne is disturbed. It has been just touched by a ball of small gauge. Instinctively, it draws on the handle to move away from the ground. The French officer rocked in the war this morning at 4 a.m. 30, at the time of the briefing with Al-Asha. The pilots of the 11th squadron of hunting of Toul received for mission of bombarding aerodrome Al-Jaber with. At 5 a.m. 30, 12 Jaguar take off: the pilots will receive their baptism of fire. Four aircraft are equipped with missiles HAVE 30 with laser guidance. The Jaguar attack at low altitude: a tactic which will prove very risky vis-a-vis with the DCA Iraqi. With the apparatus of the Mahagne captain, four planes are touched. A ball came to be placed in the pitch control of the one of them. Another received a missile SAM 7, which will not explode, in his right engine, while the engines of a fourth were sifted of grapeshot. Two Jaguar had to be posed urgently in Jubail. From now on, the French pilots will attack in piqué.

Baghdad, January 17 1991

the sky of Baghdad has been just illuminated. It is 2 a.m. 40, the shootings of anti-aircraft batteries burst above the Iraqi capital. The American furtive planes entered the dance. About thirty F-117A, equipped with bombs BLU 109 900 kg to laser guidance, sign the beginning of the war. Cruise missiles Tomahawk, drawn since the Gulf, strike in the heart of the city with a precision époustouflante. Before the first wave of assault, EF-111A Raven, F-4G Wild Weasel and other planes specialized in the electronic war scrambled the radars, the fire control systems and the communications enemy. At 3 a.m. 15, in its F-15, the captain Steve Tate, 28 years, flies over Baghdad: "With all the explosions, the city was like glaze of a Christmas decoration!" The alarm of the radar resounds. In the darkness, an Iraqi plane, probably a F1 Mirage, take altitude quickly. A pressure of the finger, the Sparrow missile sinks on its prey. A ball of fire: first air victory of the war.

Paris Air Show, June 23 1991

Thank you with Mr. Gorbatchev! Without its new policy, never very secret Mig-31 Foxhound would not have been shown in Occident. Here with the living room, in its delivered aluminium and blue, a little old-fashioned air compared with the coldly returned American monsters of the Gulf, which are aligned just opposite with their paintings of war. However, eight years after its operational service entrance, Mig-31 remainders the most powerful interceptor in the world. Two-seater derived from Mig-25, 41 T on takeoff, it is equipped with two Soloviev engines of 15 T thorough each one. Its mission: to prohibit the Soviet sky with the strategic bombers and cruise missiles. Its asset: the radar Zaslon, the first designed in the USSR with a capacity of detection downwards, which makes it possible to locate and draw from the targets evolving/moving at low altitude, in spite of the ground effect which scrambles the echoes radar. 10 hostile can be tracked simultaneously by Zaslon, including four engaged with the missile at the same time. The Migone presented at the Paris Air Show is a model export. It was recently proposed... to the Israelis!

Edwards Air Force Bases, 27 Mars 2004

the experimental hypersonic plane without pilot X-43A beat Saturday the world record speed for a machine propelled by an atmospheric engine by briefly reaching 7.700 km/h (Mach 7), announced NASA. "It is a success, all went as envisaged (...) and of the first blow", a spokesman of the American space agency indicated, Leslie William, by specifying that "the atmospheric engine had functioned as envisaged during ten seconds at a hypersonic speed". X-43 was fixed under the wing of a bomber B-52. Once released by the B-52, the prototype was to be thorough at an altitude of 30.000 meters by a rocket. Then the aircraft was to separate and fly of it in an autonomous way at the speed of seven times the speed of sound (7.700 km/h). The preceding record speed with an atmospheric engine (in opposition to an engine of rocket) had been established by spy plane SR-71 "Blackbird" at Mach 3,2 (3.500 km/h). Another experimental plane, X-15, flew at Mach 6,7 but it acted of a "rocket", carrying with him its combustive. X-43 is an apparatus of small size (3,65 m length for 1,5 m of scale), of flat profile and with the frayed lines, extremely aerodynamic. It results 20 years of research in the technology known as of the "scramjet" (Supersonic Combustible Ramjet) founded on the propulsion by ramjet with supersonic combustion. The ramjet machine is the first which could be able to draw oxygen necessary to its propulsion directly in the atmosphere that it crosses at very high speed, contrary to the rockets or space shuttles which must carry with them enormous oxygen reserves for combustion by a mixture with hydrogen.

Edwards Air Force Bases, November 17 2004

Record with 11 000 km/h for a supersonic aircraft. "Once more, we reached a historical stage in the history of aviation", launched this night on the chain of television of NASA Vincent Rausch, director of program X-43A. Announced speed is of 11 000 km/h for the supersonic aircraft but it specifies that the figure correct will be known after the analysis of the flight. A B52 bomber of the US Air Force had taken off of the base of Edwards in California Tuesday evening carrying under its right wing X-43 with a little more than 12.000 meters of altitude. Once detached of the plane, after a rise of approximately one hour, the X-43A, halfway between the plane and the spacecraft, was increased to 30.000 meters by a Pegasus rocket of which it then separated to fly in an autonomous way with its ramjet lit to nearly Mach 10 during 10 seconds. The plane then continued its impetus by carrying out during ten minutes a series of canned operations before going to finish its race in the Pacific. Last March, another specimen of the X-43A had reached nearly Mach 7 (7.700 km/h), beating the preceding record speed with an atmospheric engine (in opposition to a rocket motor) established by spy plane SR-71 Blackbird at Mach 3,2 (3.500 km/h) in the Sixties. The last two successes of X-43, an apparatus of small size to the flat profile and the very aerodynamic lines, result 20 years of research in the technology known as of the "scramjet" (Supersonic Combustible Ramjet) founded on the propulsion by ramjet with supersonic combustion. Contrary to the rockets which must carry oxygen for the combustion of their engine, a ramjet burns its fuel by using the oxygen of the atmosphere which it crosses at high speed. The dream of the US Air Force: Joel Sitz, the project leader X-43, a programme of 230 million dollars, explained in a press conference at the base of Edwards that this historical flight "had opened the way with the technology of the scramjet which has without any doubt a future". The US Air Force seeks to develop a plane able to reach any point of the sphere in less than two hours while transporting six tons of bombs or cruise missiles. The Pentagon and the Australian ministry of Defense will try in 2005 in Australia to make steal another "scramjet" at Mach 10 within the framework of a project, which they cofinance, aiming at using this technology to place satellites in orbit.

Salina, 3 Mars 2005

Fossett beats the record of the turn of the world in the plane without stopover and supply The turn of the world in 67 hours. After having traversed 37.000 kilometers of a draft, Steve Fossett wanted of a good bath, a good meal and a good nap. The adventurer millionaire became Thursday the first man to carry out the turn of the world in the plane without stopover nor supply. He completed his exploit at the place where he had started it, in Salina, a small city of Kansas in the center of the United States. Several thousands of people had gathered at the aerodrome to see it posing its GlobalFlyer. This apparatus was designed by the engineer who had imagined Voyager, on board of which two pilots had carried out the first turn of the world in the plane in 1986. "Believe, it is super for me to find the ground", declared the aviator. "It is one of the most difficult things that I achieved." He explained to have survived by swallowing a dozen milk shakes lasting all the flight and by drinking much water. He suffered from headaches - which precisely disappeared by drinking water as well as lack from sleep. To be relieved, it made wee in bottles. Steve Fossett made a success of this tour as of its first attempt, whereas it had had to be caught there with six times to achieve its turn of the world in balloon in solo. Wednesday, a fuel problem had caused doubts about the capacity of GlobalFlyer to return to its starting point. The gauges of the 13 tanks of the apparatus single-engined aircraft indicated that 1.170kg, on the 8.145 embarked for the flight, "had volitilized", according to the team on the ground of Steve Fossett. One was unaware of if it acted of a leakage or a problem of gauge. The team had then wondered whether it were necessary to be posed in Hawaii or to continue above the Pacific Ocean to the American continent. The pilot had sliced while launching: "Let us go there!" Pushed then by strong winds postpones, Steve Fossett could fly over Los Angeles then to move towards Salina. At the time of its preceding record, in balloon, in 2002, it had taken off and landed in Australia. The millionaire originating in Chicago also crossed the English Channel to the stroke, taken part in the race of huskies Iditarod, in Alaska, and with 24 hours the motor race of Mans, in France. Fossett also holds the absolute record of the turn of the world to the veil, since April 5, 2004, in 58 days, 09 hours and 32 minutes. Wiley Post, a pioneer of aviation, had carried out the first turn of the world as a recluse in 1933 but it had been necessary for him more than seven days and of many stopovers. The turn of the world without stopover was produced in 1986 by the duet Jeana Yeager and Dick Rutan, the brother of Burt Rutan, the originator To travel and GlobalFlyer. Immediately after having left the plane, Fossett tightened his Peggy wife in her arms and was congratulated by Sir Richard Branson, the founder of the company Virgin Atlantic, which financed its exploit. "It is something which I wanted to do for a long time, one of my principal ambitions", commented on Fossett. Branson then seized a champagne bottle, and the pilot sprinkled shook. "That was a splendid voyage", declared Branson. "Obviously, it is with the seventh sky."

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